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The species of Heterodermia in Brazil have been revised based on literature reports, public databases and examination of 500 recent specimens from 15 states. So far, 43 species have been reported in the literature, two of which are not accepted here. We report 10 additional species from Brazil and describe 15 new to science, mostly from the Atlantic rainforest biome, raising the total number to 68, including two still undescribed species from Santa Catarina State. A key to all accepted species is given, keying out more species than represented in any previously published key of the genus. Based on new phylogenetic work, we do not accept the split genera that were recently proposed. We do informally recognize an additional group, the H. dactyliza-group. The following species are described as new: Heterodermia amphilacinulata M. F. N. Martins & M. P. Marcelli, H. caneziae M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. delicatula M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins, H. dissecticodiademata M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. dissecticoflabellata M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. flavodactyliza M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. flavulifera M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. labiata M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins, H. macrosoraliata M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins, H. minor M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. neocrocea M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. nigromarginata M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. phyllalbicans M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. spielmannii M. F. Souza & Aptroot and H. sublinearis M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins. The following new combinations are also proposed: Heterodermia africana (Kurok.) M. F. Souza & Aptroot and H. borphyllidiata (Kalb & Meesim) M. F. Souza & Aptroot. Dissectic acid was found in species belonging to three different groups and was not restricted to (and characteristic of) one subgroup, as previously reported.
Fossil fuels are of utmost importance to the world we live in today. However, their use can cause major impacts on the environment, especially on water resources. In this regard, algae have been intensively used as a strategy for remediation and monitoring of environmental pollution due to its efficient absorption of contaminants. In this work, samples of seaweed collected in Niterói/RJ—contaminated with kerosene and diesel—were analyzed by radiocarbon (14C) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and by n-alkane quantification with gas chromatography to evaluate bioaccumulation in function of the dosage of contaminants. The biogenic content measured by radiocarbon analysis resulted in 95.6% for algae contaminated with 10 mL of kerosene and 67.6% for algae contaminated with 10 mL of diesel. The maximum intensity of n-C17 n-alkane in algae with 5 mL, 10 mL, and 15 mL of diesel was 768.2, 1878.1, and 5699.2 ng.g-1, respectively. While the maximum concentration of n-C27 in algae with 5 mL, 10 mL and 15 mL of kerosene was 3.3, 35.9, and 150.3 ng.g-1. We concluded that, for both contaminants, their incorporation into algae increases as the contamination dosage increases, making this methodology an effective technique for monitoring and remediation of urban aquatic ecosystems.
Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic protozoonosis observed in over 60 countries, with over 500 000 new cases recorded annually. Although the diagnostic procedure of its symptomatic forms is well established, for asymptomatic patients, who represent about 85% of those infected, there is no consensus on the best method for its identification. Recent studies have presented molecular techniques as viable identification methods, with good sensitivity and specificity indices in asymptomatic individuals. Therefore, we aimed to use molecular methods to assess their effectiveness in identifying the presence of asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) individuals from endemic regions of Brazil. Screening was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and confirmed by sequencing the cytochrome B gene. Of the 127 samples [from 608 blood donors who had participated in a previous study, of which 34 were positive by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) rK39] tested by qPCR, 31 (24.4%) were positive. In the sequencing of 10 qPCR-positive samples, five were identified as L. infantum. Complimentary samples of the ELISA rK39 and conventional PCR showed only reasonable and low agreement with qPCR, respectively. The qPCR confirmed the presence of infection in five of the 10 sequenced samples, ELISA confirmed three, and the conventional PCR confirmed none.
To analyse differences in the prevalence of prediabetes (PD), undiagnosed diabetes (UDD) and diagnosed diabetes (DD) and associated factors between Brazilian and English older adults.
England and Brazil.
5301 participants of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing study and 1947 participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging study classified as non-diabetics, PD, UDD and DD.
The prevalence of PD, UDD and DD was 48·6, 3 and 9·6 % in England and 33, 6 and 20 % in Brazil. In England, the increase in age, non-white skin colour, smoking, general obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with PD, UDD and DD, whereas hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL levels, hypertension and stroke were associated with UDD and DD. In Brazil, the increase in age was associated with DD and UDD, non-white skin colour and smoking were associated with UDD and abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were associated with all three conditions. CVD in England and schooling in Brazil were associated with PD and DD. A sedentary lifestyle was associated with DD in both samples.
The prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Brazilian sample. Different associated factors were found in the two samples, which may be related to differences in nutritional transition, access to healthcare services and the use of such services.
To identify the presence of factors associated with treatment outcome in patients under group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Subjects and methods
This study evaluated 181 patients with OCD that attended a 12-session weekly GCBT program. Response criteria were: ≥35% reduction in Y-BOCS scores and global improvement score of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) ≤ 2 at post-treatment evaluation. Sociodemographic data, OCD characteristics, and treatment data were studied.
In the bivariate analysis, the following variables showed statistical significance (p < 0.20) to enter the regression model: being woman (p = 0.074), greater insight (p = 0.017) and better quality of life (QOL) in all domains before treatment (p = 0.053), overall severity of disease according to the CGI (p = 0.007), number of associated comorbidities (p = 0.063), social phobia (p = 0.044), and dysthymia (p = 0.072). In the final regression model, these variables were associated with response to GCBT: female gender (p = 0.021); WHOQOL-BREF psychological domain (p = 0.011); insight (p = 0.042); and global improvement score of the CGI severity-scale before therapy (p = 0.045).
Special attention should be paid to patients with poor insight, increasing the cognitive aspects of the therapy in an attempt to modify the rigidity and fixity of their beliefs. In addition, male patients should be more observed, since they showed lower chance of response to GCBT when compared to women. Patients with more severe global symptoms (CGI) are poorer responders to GCBT, which indicates that not only obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) should be evaluated, since other symptoms, such as depression and anxiety, may affect the treatment; therefore, an attempt to reduce these symptoms, prior to the treatment of OCD, should be considered as an option in some cases.
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
To identify risk factors related to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii infection during an outbreak, associated with laparoscopic surgery and to propose recommendations for preventing new cases.
A retrospective cohort study.
A private hospital in Manaus, Brazil.
A cohort of 222 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery between July 2009 and August 2010 by a single surgical team.
We collected information about the patients and the surgical procedure using a standard form. We included sex, age, and variables with P≤0.2 in the bivariate analysis in a logistic regression model. Additionally, we reviewed the procedures for reprocessing the laparoscopic surgery equipment, and the strains obtained with culture were identified by molecular methods.
We recorded 60 (27%) cases of infection. After multivariate analysis, the duration of surgery beyond 1 hour (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.5), not to have been the first operated patient on a given day (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4–5.2), and the use of permanent trocar (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1–4.2) were associated with infection. We observed that the surgical team attempted to sterilize the equipment in glutaraldehyde solution when sanitary authorities had already prohibited it. Eleven strains presented 100% DNA identity with a single strain, known as BRA100 clone.
Because contaminated material can act as vehicle for infection, ensuring adequate sterilization processing of video-assisted surgery equipment was crucial to stopping this single clonal outbreak of nonturbeculous mycobacteria in Brazil.
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by
the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is the
most prevalent systemic mycosis of Latin America and 80% of the
reported cases are from Brazil. Because of the great number of
neutrophils found in the P. brasiliensis granuloma, studies
have been done to evaluate the role of these cells during the
development of the infection. Scanning and transmission electron
microscopy of thin sections showed that the neutrophils ingest yeast
cells through a typical phagocytic process with the formation of
pseudopodes. The pseudopodes even disrupt the connection established
between the mother and the bud cells. Neutrophils also associate to
each other, forming a kind of extracellular vacuole where large yeast
cells are encapsulated. Cytochemical studies showed that once P.
brasiliensis attaches to the neutrophil surface, it triggers a
respiratory burst with release of oxygen-derived products. Attachment
also triggers neutrophils' degranulation, with release of
endogenous peroxidase localized in cytoplasmic granules. Together,
these processes lead to killing of both ingested and extracellular
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