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The cardiovascular adaptations associated with structured exercise training in Fontan patients remain unknown. We hypothesised that short-term training causes cardiac remodelling and parallel improvement in maximal exercise capacity (VO2 max) in these patients.
Methods and Results:
Five patients, median age 19.5 (17.6–21.3) years, with a history of Fontan operation meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria, participated in a 3-month training programme designed to improve endurance. Magnetic resonance images for assessment of cardiac function, fibrosis, cardiac output, and liver elastography to assess stiffness were obtained at baseline and after training. Maximal exercise capacity (VO2 max) and cardiac output Qc (effective pulmonary blood flow) at rest and during exercise were measured (C2H2 rebreathing) at the same interval. VO2 max increased from median (IQR) 27.2 (26–28.7) to 29.6 (28.5–32.2) ml/min/kg (p = 0.04). There was an improvement in cardiac output (Qc) during maximal exercise testing from median (IQR) 10.3 (10.1–12.3) to 12.3 (10.9–14.9) l/min, but this change was variable (p = 0.14). Improvement in VO2 max correlated with an increase in ventricular mass (r = 0.95, p = 0.01), and improvement in Quality-of-life inventory (PedsQL) Cardiac scale scores for patient-reported symptoms (r = 0.90, p = 0.03) and cognitive problems (r = 0.89, p = 0.04). The correlation between VO2 max and Qc showed a positive trend but was not significant (r = 0.8, p = 0.08). No adverse cardiac or liver adaptations were noted.
Short-term training improved exercise capacity in this Fontan pilot without any adverse cardiac or liver adaptations. These results warrant further study in a larger population and over a longer duration of time.
The Advanced Cardiac Therapies Improving Outcomes Network (ACTION) and Pediatric Heart Transplant Society (PHTS) convened a working group at the beginning of 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the aim of using telehealth as an alternative medium to provide quality care to a high-acuity paediatric population receiving advanced cardiac therapies. An algorithm was developed to determine appropriateness, educational handouts were developed for both patients and providers, and post-visit surveys were collected. Telehealth was found to be a viable modality for health care delivery in the paediatric heart failure and transplant population and has promising application in the continuity of follow-up, medication titration, and patient education/counselling domains.
The aim of this study was to develop and to assess a specific Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework to evaluate new drugs in an hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committee (P&TC) setting.
A pilot criteria framework was developed based on the EVIDEM (Evidence and Value: Impact on DEcisionMaking) framework, together with other relevant criteria, and assessed by a group of P&TC's members. The weighting of included criteria was done using a 5-point weighting technique. Two drugs were chosen by evaluation: an orphan-drug for Gaucher disease, and a nonorphan drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence matrices were developed, and value contribution of each drug was evaluated by P&TC's members. An agreed final framework was obtained through a discussion between the P&TC's members.
After criteria assessment, the pilot framework included eight quantitative criteria: “disease severity,” “unmet needs,” “comparative efficacy/effectiveness,” “comparative safety/tolerability,” “comparative patient-reported outcomes,” “comparative cost consequences-cost of treatment,” “comparative cost consequences-other medical costs,” and “quality of evidence”; and one contextual criterion: “opportunity costs and affordability.” The most valued criteria were: “comparative safety/tolerability,” “disease severity,” and “comparative efficacy/effectiveness.” When assessing the drugs most valued characteristics of the MCDA were the possibility that all team may contribute to drug assessment by means of scoring the matrices and the discussion to reach a consensus in drug positioning and value decision making.
The reflective MCDA would integrate quantitative and qualitative criteria relevant for a P&TC setting, allowing reflective discussions based on the criteria weighting score.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become increasingly present in our lives, and their use has spread considerably. This paper presents a review of the way ICTs can help practitioners and researchers to study, promote, and train positive emotions. It is framed within the field of Positive Technologies: the applied scientific approach to the study of the use of technology to improve the quality of personal experience, with the goal of increasing wellbeing. First, the article presents an introduction to the topic of technologies and positive emotions. Then, it describes how ICTs can aid in monitoring, assessing, promoting, modifying, and training positive emotions. Finally, implications and future directions of the role of Positive Technologies in positive emotions are discussed. The authors conclude that, in the near future, Positive Technologies and the field of positive emotions will interact synergistically, producing an exponential growth in the understanding and promotion of positive emotions.
Introduction. Mango producers of two important growing areas of the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, reported extensive damage in mango trees caused by an abundant mycelial growth covering most diseased panicles of mango trees cv. Haden. Materials and methods. The fungus was isolated from panicles of mango. Pathogenicity was evaluated in the orchard by inoculating 20 inflorescences protected by cellophane paper bags. In vitro characterization was evaluated on monosporic cultures; conidial morphology and rate of growth were determined. A molecular characterization by DNA extraction was carried out to identify the microorganism. Results. Cladosporium tenuissimum caused necrosis of flowers, pedicels and small fruits on inoculated mango panicles cv. Haden in the long coast of Guerrero and Michoacan States of Mexico. The affected organs were covered with grey cottony mycelia and an olivaceous, green to grey sporulation. In vitro, young colonies were also olive green and velvety, turning dark green to grey with a whitish outer margin. The growth rate of colonies was 0.46 cm·day–1. Conidia were subspherical, lime-shaped and fusiform, olivaceous in color with visible scars and denticle-like extensions. The mean size of conidia was (5.85 × 2.93) µm with variations of 3.2–23 µm × 1.98–5.47 µm. The molecular characteristics rendered C. tenuissimum after identification. Symptoms of inoculated or naturally infected tree organs were similar. A diagrammatic scale was developed for the evaluation of disease severity, which varied from 69% to 100% in infected panicles. The organs were susceptible from blooming to fruit set. Discussion. Further research is proposed to evaluate the geographical distribution of C. tenuissimum in the production areas of mango with the concomitant evaluations of strategies of control.
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