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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Title V Coop developed CRESCO, a physical and virtual space in the libraries of the two cooperating institutions. Adopting a flexible and transformational approach, it offers services to support the development of research and information skills of undergraduate students and faculty who receive clinical-translational research (CTR) training. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Since 2016, CRESCO has been staffed by a multidisciplinary team composed of three librarians, a statistician, an instructional designer, and an IT specialist. The physical facilities of the two libraries were remodeled and equipped, and a central portal was created to provide services and access to resources on a 7/24 basis. Online tutorials, workshops, and mentoring services have been offered that address topics in statistics, literature search, plagiarism, and the use of several research software. Services statistics are collected, and a questionnaire is administered to evaluate the workshops. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The main results include 12 online tutorials created in CTR areas and available in the CRESCO hub portal; 14,660 mentoring/consultations offered in statistics, the use of research-related software, and the search for scientific literature search; and 6 online workshops created in CTR areas, with 463 attendees. When evaluating online workshops, participants considered that their acquired learning was high or extremely high on the following topics: use of Intellectus Statistics (88%, n = 96); selection of statistical tests (81%, n = 92); use of Turnitin (85%, n = 76); literature search (91%, n = 58); and citations and references in Mendeley (90%, n = 67). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the flexible, multidisciplinary, and transformational approach of CRESCO has been successful in helping undergraduate students and faculty develop the skills necessary to conduct CTR projects.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO) Mentoring Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR) 1 – 2 and the elective courses (INTD 5998/ MDCL 101) in CTR of Title V Coop were designed to provide the participants from higher education institution (HEI) in Puerto Rico (PR), interdisciplinary – interprofesional knowledge in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Since April 2017, Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO) and Mentoring Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR) 1 - 2 trainings were offered as part of the Title V Coop. In addition, since January 2020, as part of the institutionalization of the trainings in CTR, two elective courses (INTD 5998 and MDCL 101) were created-offered. The trainings/courses present the main concepts underlying CTR performance through lectures, workshops and presentations, in hybrid modalities, as well as the services-resources of the Center Research Education and Science Commnunication Opportunities (CRESCO). These programs have given students (undergraduate and graduate) and faculty the opportunity to get started in CTR and to integrate in Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Eight (8) cycles of RETO-MOTOR 1 and seven (7) cycles of RETO-MOTOR 2; two sessions of INTD 5998 and one session of MDCL 101 were offered. The RETO-MOTOR 1 training was completed by 219 participants and RETO-MOTOR 2 by 130 participants. The INTD 5998 course was completed by 22 students and the MDCL 101 course by 18 students. A total of 389 participants have been initiated in the CTR. Of the trainings, 90% indicated that the knowledge acquired in CTR was invaluable, 85% understand that the most significant achievement, as students, was present at a scientific conference, and 100% indicated interest in continuing to do CTR. Of the courses, 100% indicated that they were a good learning experience, helped them increase their knowledge in CTR, met their expectations and would recommend other students to take the course. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The RETO-MOTOR 1, RETO-MOTOR 2 trainings and CTR courses provide a based of research knowledge and valuable interprofessional experience for those who whish to start in the clinical and translational research. The Title V Cooperative Project provides this opportunity to undergraduate and graduate students such as faculty of HEI in PR.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This presentation highlights an integrated curriculum in CTR and a scientific entrepreneurship approach to entice and support students and faculty in HP programs into CTR and SE thus expanding the pool of new minority CTR researchers. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To present the TVMSC as a hub for trainings, mentoring programs, courses, entrepreneurship and support activities for health professionals(HP) and HP students :graduate (GS) and UgS and UgF. Responding to the need for CTR minority researchers, in a virtual setting due to COVID-19 crisis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: TVMSC will offer an educational program based in the Center for Research,Entrepreneurship and Scientific Collaboration (CRESCO) with on line courses and workshops in CTR and SE, for HP and students and a continued education curriculum for HP and clinician scientists toward a certification in CTR. Two hands-on experiences: a) a Pilot project program(PiP) with teams composed of an F, that previously completed training cycles and a research experience from a previous project in CTR as PI, with a research mentor and students or an established researcher as a PI with UgS and UgF, and b) participation in a SE team which will engage in training and submission of an SE project proposal. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: By the end of the five-year period the project will have had 200 UgS, 200 GS and 200 F that received online assistance in CTR skills, statistics and SE; 48 UgS and 48 GS with the skills in SEFL. In curricular development the project expects to have 6 online tutorials created, one FLSE online course and 18 modules in CTR content areas available for continued education of HP. Certifications in CTR will be completed by 160F/HPs. The expected participation in CTR on-hands experiences is 32 F, 64 students and 32 established researchers. PiP teams will publish at least 8 scientific papers and SEFL teams will submit at least 5 SE project proposals and 100% increase in CRESCO web based resources DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This Project and its expected results will provide students and faculty members island-wide with the knowledge, skills and experiences in CTR with IE approach to foster the expansion of a cadre of Hispanic minority CTR researchers in direct benefit of the health of the people of Puerto Rico.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess the impact of FLTCs on CTR on S and F from health professions and basic science academic programs island wide in Puerto Rico. Cycles supported by the Title V Cooperative Project at University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus (UPRMSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC)(Title V). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: After offering FLTCs in CTR to S and F from UPRMSC and UCC, Title V expanded it to S and F from other institutions island wide in PR. These FLTCs were offered the 2nd semester of 2018 and consisted of 20 hours of interdisciplinary sessions in: introduction to and definition of CTR; preparation of a CTR-presentation; how to interview/share a presentation of a CT researcher and to prepare a research question in CTR. To assess the knowledge of S and F in the above-mentioned skills and their continuation in the 2nd level of CTR training, surveys were administered: pre-test, at the beginning, post-test, sometime during the FLTCs, and satisfaction at the end of the FLTCs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty eight (58) S/F from UPRMSC, UCC and 7 other institutions participated. Forty two (42,72%) answered a pre-test and 31/42 (74%) completed the post-test. Results showed that S/F: who correctly defined CTR increased from 7% to 77 %; their ability to identify a CT researcher increased from 10% to 83%. Fifty five percent (55 %) (21/38) S/F that were certified in the FLTCs, answered the satisfaction survey. One hundred percent (100%) indicated that the materials offered contributed in the identification of a CT researcher and a topic in CTR; 100% answered that the FLTCs contributed higher knowledge in and provided new skills in CTR. Moreover, 31/38 (82%) S/F started the 2nd level of training. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The FLTCs were successful in increasing S/F knowledge of CTR and to further engage in 2nd level of trainings. Title V impact extended island wide, increasing the diversity of represented health professions and science fields among participants. The interventions were deemed to be of high quality.
Life expectancy of people with depression is on average 15 years less than that of the general population. This excess of mortality is largely attributed to a deteriorated physical health. Evidence about the association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and physical health is still lacking in some areas. The aim of this study was to explore the association between MDD and physical health-related variables in southern Spain.
The PISMA-ep is a cross-sectional study based on community-dwelling adult population. Our main outcome was current prevalence of MDD. Independent variables explored were: lifetime prevalence of twenty-one chronic physical conditions (CPCs), anthropometric measures (height, weight, body max index, and hip and waist circumferences), general health status, and medication use.
MDD was significantly associated with any CPC (OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 2.01–3.35; p < 0.001). Increases in BMI were associated with MDD in women (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.05–1.11; p < 0.001), but not in men (OR=0.99; 95% CI: 0.95–1.05; p = 0.916). Variables associated with MDD in the multivariate model were: female gender, obesity, general health status, cancer, peptic ulcer, tinnitus and vertigo. 21.4% of participants with MDD received antidepressant treatment.
MDD is associated with CPCs, obesity, and increased use of medication. The high rates of comorbidity between MDD and CPCs call for a more holistic management of patients in the clinical practice. The low rate of antidepressant use may be indicating underdiagnosis. Anthropometric variables were differently associated with MDD depending on gender, suggesting a strong influence of psychosocial factors.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus and Universidad Central del Caribe, through the Title V Cooperative Project, devised a clinical and translational research (CTR) platform to pipeline students/faculty of undergraduate health sciences programs into CTR. Educational interventions in CTR—introductory intervention (II) and Annual Symposium (AS)—were designed to promote awareness, stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In the II the participants (n=159) were surveyed before and after a presentation and panel discussion about CTR. In addition, after the sessions—plenary, panel, and workshop—about CTR, the participants of AS (n=42) were surveyed for satisfaction and learning experience in CTR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most participants of the II, 134 (84.3%) were students. In total, 58 (58, 36.5%) completed the post II survey. Of these, 53.4% satisfactorily defined the CTR concept Versus only 31.0% that could define CTR in the pre survey, 47 (81.7%) were unable to identify a CTR researcher and 45 (78.3 %) expressed interest in learning about CTR. In total, 28 (28, 66.7%) participants of the AS completed the satisfaction survey, out of which 17 (60.6%) were students. One hundred percent (100%) agreed that the AS served as a vehicle to increase their knowledge in CTR. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The educational interventions demonstrated to be an effective strategy to promote awareness and stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. In addition, the results obtained, provided valuable baseline information for the planning—development of training cycles in CTR.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
Meals are an important source of food intake, contributing to body weight and health status. Previous studies have examined the relationship between isolated mealtime behaviours and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the influence over time of ten interrelated mealtime habits on the risk of developing the MetS and insulin resistance (IR) among Mexican adults. We conducted a prospective cohort study with a sample of 956 health workers. The Mealtime Habits Quality (MHQ) scale is based on four mealtime situations (availability of time to eat, distractions while eating, environmental and social context of eating, and familiar or cultural eating habits), which were used to assess the participants’ MHQ at the baseline (2004–2006) and follow-up (2010–2012) evaluations. The MetS was assessed using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IR was defined using the homoeostasis model assessment. Crude and adjusted relative risks were calculated to estimate the relationship between MHQ and the risk of developing the MetS or IR. Participants classified in the lower MHQ category had an 8·8 (95 % CI 3·1, 25) and 11·1 (95 % CI 3·4, 36·1) times greater risk of developing the MetS (using the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria, respectively), and an 11·2 times (95 % CI 3·9, 31·5) greater likelihood of developing IR, compared with those in the higher MHQ group. This prospective study reveals that individuals who engaged in more undesirable than recommended mealtime behaviours had a >10-fold risk of developing the MetS or IR.
Recent studies point to overlap between neuropsychiatric disorders in symptomatology and genetic aetiology.
To systematically investigate genomics overlap between childhood and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD).
Analysis of whole-genome blood gene expression and genetic risk scores of 318 individuals. Participants included individuals affected with adult ADHD (n = 93), childhood ADHD (n = 17), MDD (n = 63), ASD (n = 51), childhood dual diagnosis of ADHD–ASD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 78).
Weighted gene co-expression analysis results reveal disorder-specific signatures for childhood ADHD and MDD, and also highlight two immune-related gene co-expression modules correlating inversely with MDD and adult ADHD disease status. We find no significant relationship between polygenic risk scores and gene expression signatures.
Our results reveal disorder overlap and specificity at the genetic and gene expression level. They suggest new pathways contributing to distinct pathophysiology in psychiatric disorders and shed light on potential shared genomic risk factors.
Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness.
To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden.
Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria.
We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset.
Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role.
Obesity has been shown to be associated with depression and it has been suggested that higher body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of depression and other common mental disorders. However, the causal relationship remains unclear and Mendelian randomisation, a form of instrumental variable analysis, has recently been employed to attempt to resolve this issue.
To investigate whether higher BMI increases the risk of major depression.
Two instrumental variable analyses were conducted to test the causal relationship between obesity and major depression in RADIANT, a large case–control study of major depression. We used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FTO and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 32 SNPs with well-established associations with BMI.
Linear regression analysis, as expected, showed that individuals carrying more risk alleles of FTO or having higher score of GRS had a higher BMI. Probit regression suggested that higher BMI is associated with increased risk of major depression. However, our two instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression (FTO genotype: coefficient −0.03, 95% CI −0.18 to 0.13, P = 0.73; GRS: coefficient −0.02, 95% CI −0.11 to 0.07, P = 0.62).
Our instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression. The positive associations of higher BMI with major depression in probit regression analyses might be explained by reverse causality and/or residual confounding.
The relationship between the return of menstruation and ovulation and the pattern of breast-feeding was studied in a group of 29 women in a rural area of Mexico; eight non-breast-feeding post-partum women were also studied. The return of ovulation was assessed by weekly determinations of urinary pregnanediol. The number of suckling episodes and supplementary feeds was recorded. The cumulative probability of resumption of menses for the breast-feeders was 28% and 52% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, and for the non-breast-feeders was 75% and 88%. The cumulative probability of ovulation for the breast-feeders was 28%, 66%, 69% and 72% at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively, and for the non-breast-feeders was 50% and 100% at 3 and 6 months. The earlier the introduction of supplements the earlier the return of ovulation. The nonovulatory subjects maintained a higher frequency of suckling episodes than did the ovulatory subjects. The cumulative probability of pregnancy for the breast-feeders was 3%, 7%, 7% and 10% at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively, and for the non-breast-feeders was 13%, 38% and 50% at 3, 6 and 9 months.
The objective of this paper is to characterise the epidemiological and nutritional transition and their determinants in Mexico.
Age-adjusted standardised mortality rates (SMRs) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), diabetes mellitus and hypertension were calculated for 1980–1998. Changes in the prevalences of overweight and obesity in women and children and of dietary intake from 1988 to 1999 were also used in the analysis. Quantities of food groups purchased by adult equivalent (AE) and food expenditures away from home between 1984 and 1989 were used to assess trends. All information was analysed at the national and regional levels, and by urban and rural areas.
SMR for diabetes, AMI and hypertension increased dramatically parallel to obesity at the national and regional levels. Fat intake in women and the purchase of refined carbohydrates, including soda, also increased.
The results suggest that obesity is playing a role in the increased SMRs of diabetes, AMI and hypertension in Mexico. Total energy dietary intake and food purchase data could not explain the rise in the prevalence of obesity. The increases in fat intake and the purchase of refined carbohydrates may be risk factors for increased mortality. Information on physical activity was not available.
SMRs due to diabetes, hypertension and AMI have increased dramatically in parallel with the prevalence of obesity; therefore actions should be taken for the prevention of obesity. Reliable information about food consumption and physical activity is required to assess their specific roles in the aetiology of obesity.
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