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To establish an antimicrobial stewardship program in the outpatient setting.
Prescribers of antimicrobials were asked to complete a survey regarding antimicrobial stewardship. We also monitored their compliance with appropriate prescribing practices, which were shared in monthly quality improvement reports.
The study was performed at Loyola University Health System, an academic teaching healthcare system in a metropolitan suburban environment.
Prescribers of antimicrobials across 19 primary care and 3 immediate- and urgent-care clinics.
The voluntary survey was developed using SurveyMonkeyand was distributed via e-mail. Data were collected anonymously. Rates of compliance with appropriate prescribing practices were abstracted from electronic health records and assessed by 3 metrics: (1) avoidance of antibiotics in adult acute bronchitis and appropriate antibiotic treatment in (2) patients tested for pharyngitis and (3) children with upper respiratory tract infections.
Prescribers were highly knowledgeable about what constitutes appropriate prescribing; verified compliance rates were highly concordant with self-reported rates. Nearly all prescribers were concerned about resistance, but fewer than half believed antibiotics were overprescribed in their office. Among respondents, 74% reported intense pressure from patients to prescribe antimicrobials inappropriately. Immediate- and urgent-care prescribers had higher rates of compliance than primary-care prescribers, and the latter group responded well to monthly reports and online educational resources.
Intense pressure from patients to prescribe antimicrobials when they are not indicated leads to overprescribing, an effect compounded by the importance of patient satisfaction scores. Compliance reporting improved the number of appropriate antibiotics prescribed in the primary care setting.
To develop a regional antibiogram within the Chicagoland metropolitan area and to compare regional susceptibilities against individual hospitals within the area and national surveillance data.
Multicenter retrospective analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2017 and comparison to local institutions and national surveillance data.
Setting and participants:
The analysis included 51 hospitals from the Chicago–Naperville–Elgin Metropolitan Statistical Area within the state of Illinois. Overall, 18 individual collaborator hospitals provided antibiograms for analysis, and data from 33 hospitals were provided in aggregate by the Becton Dickinson Insights Research Database.
All available antibiogram data from calendar year 2017 were combined to generate the regional antibiogram. The final Chicagoland antibiogram was then compared internally to collaborators and externally to national surveillance data to assess its applicability and utility.
In total, 167,394 gram-positive, gram-negative, fungal, and mycobacterial isolates were collated to create a composite regional antibiogram. The regional data represented the local institutions well, with 96% of the collaborating institutions falling within ±2 standard deviations of the regional mean. The regional antibiogram was able to include 4–5-fold more gram-positive and -negative species with ≥30 isolates than the median reported by local institutions. Against national surveillance data, 18.6% of assessed pathogen–antibiotic combinations crossed prespecified clinical thresholds for disparity in susceptibility rates, with notable trends for resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Developing an accurate, reliable regional antibiogram is feasible, even in one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. The biogram is useful in assessing susceptibilities to less commonly encountered organisms and providing clinicians a more accurate representation of local antimicrobial resistance rates compared to national surveillance databases.
To characterize antifungal stewardship among antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) at a diverse range of hospitals and to correlate antifungal stewardship with hospital characteristics.
ASP physician and/or pharmacist members at Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network (SRN) hospitals.
An electronic survey administered August–September 2018 via the SRN to 111 hospitals. The χ2 test was used to test associations between ASP and hospital characteristics and use of antifungal stewardship strategies.
Of 111 hospitals, 45 (41%) responded; most were academic medical centers (65%) caring for stem-cell patients (73.3%) and solid-organ transplant patients (80.0%). Most hospitals have large, well-established ASPs: 60% had >5 team members and 68.9% had a duration ≥6 years. In 43 hospitals (95.6%), ASPs used antifungal stewardship strategies, most commonly prospective audit and feedback (73.3%) by a pharmacist (71.4%). Half of ASPs (51.1%) created guidelines for invasive fungal infection (IFI) management. Most hospitals (71.1%) offered rapid laboratory tests to diagnose IFI, but polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and antifungal susceptibility testing varied. Also, 29 ASPs (64.4%) perform surveillance of antifungal utilization, but only 9 (31%) reported to the CDC National Healthcare Safety Network. ASP size, duration, and presence of transplant populations were not associated with a higher likelihood of using antifungal stewardship strategies (P > .05 for all).
The use of antifungal stewardship strategies was high at SRN hospitals, but they mainly involved audit and feedback. ASPs should be encouraged (1) to disseminate guidelines for IFI management, (2) to promote access to laboratory tests for rapid and accurate IFI diagnosis, and (3) to perform surveillance for antifungal utilization with reporting to the CDC.
To determine the independent association between diabetes and surgical site infection (SSI) across multiple surgical procedures.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms “risk factors” or “glucose” and “surgical site infection.” A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Standardized data collection forms were used to extract study-specific estimates for diabetes, blood glucose levels, and body mass index (BMI). A random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates, and meta-regression was used to evaluate specific hypothesized sources of heterogeneity.
The primary outcome was SSI, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria. The overall effect size for the association between diabetes and SSI was odds ratio (OR)=1.53 (95% predictive interval [PI], 1.11–2.12; I2, 57.2%). SSI class, study design, or patient BMI did not significantly impact study results in a meta-regression model. The association was higher for cardiac surgery 2.03 (95% PI, 1.13–4.05) compared with surgeries of other types (P=.001).
These results support the consideration of diabetes as an independent risk factor for SSIs for multiple surgical procedure types. Continued efforts are needed to improve surgical outcomes for diabetic patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):88–99
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