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In this 2019 cross-sectional study, we analyzed hospital records for Medicaid beneficiaries who acquired nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia. The results suggest that preventive dental treatment in the 12 months prior or periodontal therapy in the 6 months prior to a hospitalization is associated with a reduced risk of NVHAP.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aims of this study are (1) to develop and characterize a novel nonhuman primate model of pneumococcal pneumonia that mimics human disease; and (2) determine whether Streptococcus pneumoniae can: (a) translocate to the heart, (b) cause adverse cardiac events, (c) induce cardiomyocyte death, and (d) lead to scar formation during severe pneumonia in baboons. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Six adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were surgically tethered to a monitoring system to continuously assess their heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG). A baseline transthoracic echocardiogram, 12-lead ECG, serum troponin-I levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) levels were obtained before infection and at the end of the experiment to determine cardiovascular damage during pneumococcal pneumonia. Animals were challenged with 108 colony-forming units of S. pneumoniae in the right middle lobe using flexible bronchoscopy. Three baboons were rescued with ampicillin therapy (80 mg/kg/d) after the development of pneumonia. Cardiac damage was confirmed by examination of tissue sections using immunohistochemistry as well as electron and fluorescence microscopy. Western-blots and tissue staining were used to determine the presence of necroptosis (RIP3 and pMLKL) and apoptosis (Caspase-3) in the cardiac tissue. Cytokine and chemokine levels in the heart tissue were determined using Luminex technology. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four males (57%) and three (43%) females were challenged. The median age of all baboons was 11 (IQR, 10-19) years old, which corresponds to a middle-aged human. Infected baboons consistently developed severe pneumonia. All animals developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, and leukocytosis. Infection was characterized by initial leukocytosis followed by severe leukopenia on day 3 postinoculation. Non-specific ischemic alterations by ECG (ST segment and T-wave flattering) and in the premortem echocardiogram were observed. The median (IQR) levels of troponin I and HFABP at the end of the experiment were 3550 ng/mL (1717–5383) and 916.9 ng/mL (520.8–1323), respectively. Severe cardiomyopathy was observed using TEM and H&E stains in animals with severe pneumonia. Necroptosis was detected in cardiomyocytes of infected animals by the presence of pMLKL and RIP3 in cardiac tissues. Signs of cardiac remodeling indicated by disorganized collagen deposition was present in rescued animals but not in the other animals. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We confirmed that baboons experience cardiac injury during severe pneumococcal pneumonia that is characterized by myocardial invasion, activation of necroptosis, and tissue remodeling in animals rescued by antimicrobial therapy. Cardiac damage by invading pneumococci may explain why adverse cardiac events that occur during and after pneumococcal pneumonia in adult human patients.
To characterize the current economic burden of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and to determine which services increase the cost of VAP in North American hospitals.
Design and Setting.
We performed a retrospective, matched cohort analysis of mechanically ventilated patients enrolled in the North American Silver-Coated Endotracheal Tube (NASCENT) study, a prospective, randomized study conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 54 medical centers, including 45 teaching institutions (83.3%).
Case patients with microbiologically confirmed VAP (n = 30) were identified from 542 study participants with claims data and were matched by use of a primary diagnostic code, and subsequently by the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, to control patients without VAP (n = 90). Costs were estimated by applying hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios based on all-payer inpatient costs associated with VAP diagnosis-related groups.
Median total charges per patient were $198,200 for case patients and $96,540 for matched control patients (P <.001); corresponding median hospital costs were $76,730 for case patients and $41,250 for control patients (P = .001). After adjusting for diagnosis-related group payments, median losses to hospitals were $32,140 for case patients and $19,360 for control patients (P = .151). The median duration of intubation was longer for case patients than for control patients (10.1 days vs 4.7 days; P < .001), as were the median duration of intensive care unit stay (18.5 days vs 8.0 days; P < .001) and the median duration of hospitalization (26.5 days vs 14.0 days; P < .001). Examples of services likely to be directly related to VAP and having higher median costs for case patients were hospital care (P < .05) and respiratory therapy (P < .05).
VAP was associated with increased hospital costs, longer duration of hospital stay, and a higher number of hospital services being affected, which underscores the need for bundled measures to prevent VAP.
NASCENT study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00148642.
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