To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is limited information on the volume of antibiotic prescribing that is influenza-associated, resulting from influenza infections and their complications (such as streptococcal pharyngitis). We estimated that for the Kaiser Permanente Northern California population during 2010–2018, 3.4% (2.8%–4%) of all macrolide prescriptions (fills), 2.7% (2.3%–3.2%) of all aminopenicillin prescriptions, 3.1% (2.4%–3.9%) of all 3rd generation cephalosporins prescriptions, 2.2% (1.8%–2.6%) of all protected aminopenicillin prescriptions and 1.3% (1%–1.6%) of all quinolone prescriptions were influenza-associated. The corresponding proportions were higher for select age groups, e.g. 4.3% of macrolide prescribing in ages over 50 years, 5.1% (3.3%–6.8%) of aminopenicillin prescribing in ages 5–17 years and 3.3% (1.9%–4.6%) in ages <5 years was influenza-associated. The relative contribution of influenza to antibiotic prescribing for respiratory diagnoses without a bacterial indication in ages over 5 years was higher than the corresponding relative contribution to prescribing for all diagnoses. Our results suggest a modest benefit of increasing influenza vaccination coverage for reducing prescribing for the five studied antibiotic classes, particularly for macrolides in ages over 50 years and aminopenicillins in ages <18 years, and the potential benefit of other measures to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for respiratory diagnoses with no bacterial indication, both of which may contribute to the mitigation of antimicrobial resistance.
There is limited information on the volume of antibiotic prescribing that is influenza-associated, resulting from influenza infections and their complications (such as streptococcal pharyngitis and otitis media). Here, we estimated age/diagnosis-specific proportions of antibiotic prescriptions (fills) for the Kaiser Permanente Northern California population during 2010–2018 that were influenza-associated. The proportion of influenza-associated antibiotic prescribing among all antibiotic prescribing was higher in children aged 5–17 years compared to children aged under 5 years, ranging from 1.4% [95% CI (0.7–2.1)] in aged <1 year to 2.7% (1.9–3.4) in aged 15–17 years. For adults aged over 20 years, the proportion of influenza-associated antibiotic prescribing among all antibiotic prescribing was lower, ranging from 0.7% (0.5–1) for aged 25–29 years to 1.6% (1.2–1.9) for aged 60–64 years. Most of the influenza-associated antibiotic prescribing in children aged under 10 years was for ear infections, while for age groups over 25 years, 45–84% of influenza-associated antibiotic prescribing was for respiratory diagnoses without a bacterial indication. This suggests a modest benefit of increasing influenza vaccination coverage for reducing antibiotic prescribing, as well as the potential benefit of other measures to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for respiratory diagnoses with no bacterial indication in persons aged over 25 years, both of which may further contribute to the mitigation of antimicrobial resistance.
Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
1. A two-hour relative deficiency of nicotinamide, produced by maternal treatment with 6-aminonicotinamide, resulted in a maximum frequency of vertebral fusions following treatment on day 9·5 of gestation, and a maximum frequency of cleft palates following treatment on day 13·5.
2. Both defects appeared with higher frequencies in the A/Jax than in the C57BL/6J inbred strain.
3. The frequency of induced vertebral fusions in F1 embryos from crosses between the strains was higher when the father was from the A/Jax strain than when the mother was—a patroclinous reciprocal cross difference.
4. The frequency of induced cleft palate in F1 embryos from crosses between the strains was higher when the mother was from the A/Jax strain than when the father was—a matroclinous reciprocal cross difference.
5. Since the reciprocal cross differences in frequency of vertebral fusions and for cleft palates were in opposite directions, the hereditary factors influencing susceptibility to the teratogen appear to differ for the respective organ anlage. These differences appear to be, in part, cytoplasmic.
6. The frequency of induced cleft palate in the offspring of backcrosses of (untreated) F1 female hybrids to A/Jax males differed according to the cytoplasmic origin of the F1 mothers. Thus the susceptibility of an embryo to the teratogen appears to be influenced by factors transmitted through the cytoplasm.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.