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Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized.
Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods.
Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study.
African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177).
Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls.
Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet–health relationships.
The present study examined the association of serum ferritin with CHD risk using the Framingham Heart Study's 10-year risk algorithm.
Ordinal logistic regression modelling was used to interpret risk. Proportional odds modelling assessed four divisions of ranked CHD risk (4, high; 3, increased; 2, slight; 1, minimal), separately by sex.
Baltimore, MD, USA.
African-American and white participants (n 1823) from baseline of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, aged 30–64 years.
For men, there was a 0·5 % increase in risk for every 10-unit rise in serum ferritin (pmol/l). Other significant predictors included increased BMI, white race, unemployment and C-reactive protein ≥9·5 mg/l. For women, there was a 5·1 % increase in risk per 10-unit rise in serum ferritin (pmol/l). Other significant predictors included increased BMI, lower education, unemployment and C-reactive protein ≥9·5 mg/l.
Serum ferritin is a significant predictor of 10-year hard CHD risk for HANDLS study participants, a low-income, urban population. Serum ferritin, independent of elevated C-reactive protein, was associated with increased 10-year CHD risk for HANDLS participants. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence of the role of serum ferritin as a risk factor for hard CHD in African-American and white postmenopausal women in the USA. Future research on cardiovascular events from this prospective study may confirm the association.
To assess the predictive values of various adiposity indices for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults using baseline data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) cohort.
In a cross-sectional study, BMI, waist circumference (WC), body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and metabolic risk factors such as TAG, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, uric acid and C-reactive protein were measured. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
White and African-American US adults (n 1981), aged 30–64 years.
In predicting risk of MetS using obesity-independent National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, percentage total body fat mass (TtFM) assessed using DEXA measuring overall adiposity had no added value over WC. This was true among both men (area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0·680 v. 0·733 for TtFM and WC, respectively; P < 0·05) and women (AUC = 0·581 v. 0·686). Percentage rib fat mass (RbFM) was superior to TtFM only in women for MetS (AUC = 0·701 and 0·581 for RbFM and TtFM, respectively; P < 0·05), particularly among African-American women. Elevated percentage leg fat mass (LgFM) was protective against MetS among African-American men. Among white men, BMI was inferior to WC in predicting MetS. Optimal WC cut-off points varied across ethnic–sex groups and differed from those recommended by the National Institutes of Health/North American Association for the Study of Obesity.
The study provides evidence that WC is among the most powerful tools to predict MetS, and that optimal cut-off points for various indices including WC may differ by sex and race.
Flow cytometry is as yet a relatively unexploited but potentially extremely valuable method for the study of microorganisms and microbial infections. The light scattering signal produced by most viruses is beyond the detection limit of commercial flow cytometers, but bacteria and other larger microorganisms produce signals that can readily be detected. Consequently, studies involving viruses have been primarily concerned with infected cells rather than virions. Studies involving microorganisms have been directed not only at the cells, both infected and phagocytic, in which they might occur but also at the microorganisms themselves. This chapter summarises recent achievements and the potential uses of flow cytometry in the study of viruses, bacteria, yeasts and protozoa, and of the diseases caused by these microorganisms.
Cytometric techniques have so far been applied mainly to:
studies of virus replication
the detection of virus-infected cells
the assay of antiviral compounds.
Studies of virus replication
Virus infection is initiated by attachment sites on the virion surface binding to complementary structures on the surface of susceptible host cells. The cellular receptors are normal host components that the virus has usurped solely for the purpose of gaining entry to the cell. In many instances, only certain cells of a host are susceptible to infection and the limited distribution of receptor and/or coreceptor molecules is one determinant of tissue tropisms. Therefore, the identification of cells bearing suitable receptors is one goal in understanding the molecular aspects of pathogenicity. Fluorochromelabelled virus particles have been used in at least one instance to identify cells bearing virus-specific receptors and it is likely that this technique will find wider application.
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