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To mitigate the known high transmission risk in day-care facilities for children aged 0–6 years, day-care staff were given priority for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, in March 2021. This study assessed direct and indirect effects of early vaccination of day-care staff on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in daycares with the aim to provide a basis for the prioritisation of scarce vaccines in the future. Data came from statutory infectious disease notifications in educational institutions and from in-depth investigations by the district public health authorities. Using interrupted time series analyses, we measured the effect of mRNA-based vaccination of day-care staff on SARS-CoV-2 infections and transmission. Among 566 index cases from day-care centres, the mean number of secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections per index case dropped by −0.60 case per month after March 2021. The proportion of staff among all cases reported from daycares was around 60% in the pre-interruption phase and significantly decreased by 27 percentage points immediately in March 2021 and by further 6 percentage points each month in the post-interruption phase. Early vaccination of day-care staff reduced SARS-CoV-2 cases in the overall day-care setting and thus also protected unvaccinated children. This should inform future decisions on vaccination prioritisation.
This study aims at providing estimates on the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in schools and day-care centres. We calculated secondary attack rates (SARs) using individual-level data from state-wide mandatory notification of index cases in educational institutions, followed by contact tracing and PCR-testing of high-risk contacts. From August to December 2020, every sixth of overall 784 independent index cases was associated with secondary cases in educational institutions. Monitoring of 14 594 institutional high-risk contacts (89% PCR-tested) of 441 index cases during quarantine revealed 196 secondary cases (SAR 1.34%, 0.99–1.78). SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk contacts was more likely around teacher-indexes compared to student-/child-indexes (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 3.17, 1.79–5.59), and in day-care centres compared to secondary schools (IRR 3.23, 1.76–5.91), mainly due to clusters around teacher-indexes in day-care containing a higher mean number of secondary cases per index case (142/113 = 1.26) than clusters around student-indexes in schools (82/474 = 0.17). In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk in educational settings was low overall, but varied strongly between setting and role of the index case, indicating the chance for targeted intervention. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in educational institutions can powerfully inform public health policy and improve educational justice during the pandemic.
We describe a neonate who presented with an echogenic mass in the right atrium 8 weeks after closure of ventricular and atrial septal defects. On a routine post operative check up after discharge, a mass was detected in the right atrium on echocardiography. As a thrombotic formation was suggested, lysis was started, in combination with the administration of unfractioned heparin. As there was no change in echogenicity or size of the mass, it was surgically excised. Histopathological examination revealed a myofibroblastic inflammatory tumour.
Background: In patients with discordant atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections, anatomic repair restores the morphologically left ventricle to its role in supporting the systemic circulation. In this study, we have evaluated the outcomes in the intermediate term for this complex surgical procedure. Methods: Between December 1984 and October 2003, 4 patients underwent an atrial switch operation concomitantly with a Rastelli operation, and 2 patients underwent an atrial switch operation and a patch-plasty of the pulmonary outflow tract for anatomic repair at a mean age of 3.3 plus or minus 2.1 years. All patients had intracardiac rerouting, connecting the morphologically left ventricle to the aorta. Results: There were no hospital deaths. In 5 patients, reoperation was needed, either for baffle complications, exchange of the conduit, repair of a residual ventricular septal defect, or relief of obstruction within the left ventricular outflow tract. Death occurred in 1 patient, from cardiac failure 6 months after correction. Mean follow-up time was 6.5 plus or minus 6.4 years, with a range from 6 months to 17 years. At follow-up, 1 patient presented with moderate tricuspid insufficiency, and 1 patient with mild obstruction of the pulmonary venous pathway. The remaining 3 patients showed good left and right ventricular function, and no, or mild tricuspid and mitral insufficiency. Conclusions: Anatomic repair can be performed with low hospital mortality. Restoration of the morphologically left ventricle into the systemic circulation in patients with discordant atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections is a demanding approach, associated with various reoperations over time. Despite this, the approach seems to be an appropriate solution for selected patients, since the majority of the patients show good left and right ventricular function, and no, or mild tricuspid and mitral insufficiency up to 17 years after correction.
Background: Creation of an extracardiac cavopulmonary connection has been proposed as a superior alternative to the lateral intracardiac tunnel for the completion of total cavopulmonary connection. Methods and results: We made a retrospective review of our experience with 125 patients undergoing a total cavopulmonary connection between June 1994 and January 2003. Our experience with the extracardiac connection for completion began in 1999. Since 1994, we have constructed an intracardiac tunnel in 50 patients, and an extracardiac connection in 75. Of the total number, 83 had undergone an earlier partial cavopulmonary connection. Additional intracardiac procedures were performed in 43 patients at time of completion, in 25 of those undergoing extracardiac completion, and in 18 of the patients having an intracardiac procedure. The mean size of the tube used for completion was 19 mm. The mean cross-clamp time for placement of the intracardiac tunnel was 77 min, with a median of 80.5 min, and a mean cardiopulmonary bypass time of 139 min, with a median of 131 min. For construction of the extracardiac connection, a mean cross-clamp time in 24 of the 75 patients was 54 min, with a median of 54 min. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time for all the patients with an extracardiac connection was 100 min, with a median of 88 min. Reoperations were needed in 10 patients, 6 having intracardiac and 4 extracardiac procedures. Of these, 5 were early and 5 late, including one take down. None of the patients died after these interventions. Taken overall, 8 patients died, with 5 early deaths. In the multivariable analysis, cardiopulmonary bypass time of more than 120 min, atrioventricular valvar replacement, and banding of the pulmonary trunk prior to the total cavopulmonary connection, all reached statistical significance for early death, whereas only heterotaxy syndrome remained as the sole risk factor for late death. There was no significant difference in survival between the modifications used. Discussion: Whereas we could not identify any clinical superiority for the extracardiac approach in the short-term, the concept of extracardiac completion has helped to simplify the overall procedure. Longer follow-up will be required to elucidate any potential advantages.
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