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To increase our understanding of the relationships of trunk fat mass (FMtrunk) and four anthropometric indices in Chinese males, 1090 males aged 20–40 years were randomly recruited from the city of Changsha, China. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured using standardized equipment, and three other anthropometric indices of BMI, waist:hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index (CoI) were calculated using weight, height, HC and WC. FMtrunk (in kg) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 W dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. There was an increasing trend of FMtrunk, %FMtrunk (percentage of FMtrunk) and BMI, WC, WHR, CoI in successively older age groups (e.g. the mean FMtrunk values were 4·63 (sd 2·58), 5·39 (sd 2·74), 5·93 (sd 2·82), 6·57 (sd 2·94) in four 5-year age groups, respectively). FMtrunk and %FMtrunk were significantly correlated with four anthropometric indices with the Pearson's correlation coefficients ranging from 0·25 to 0·86. Principal component analysis was performed to form three principal components that interpreted over 99·5% of the total variation of four related anthropometric indices in all age groups, with over 65% of the total variation accounted by principal component 1. Multiple regression analyses showed that three principal components explained a greater variance (R2 70·0–80·1%) in FMtrunk than did BMI or WC alone (R2 57·8–74·1%). The present results suggest that there is an increasing trend of FMtrunk and four anthropometric indices in successively older age groups; that age has important effects on the relationships of FMtrunk and studied anthropometric indices; and that the accuracy of predicting FMtrunk using four anthropometric indices is higher than using BMI or WC alone.
The injection of spermatozoa into mouse, human and rabbit oocytes at specific times and positions can result in different rates of viable embryo development. However, it is not clear how the timing and position of round spermatid injection (ROSI) affect pronucleus (PN) formation and blastocyst development of mice. First, we determined the changes in relative position of the first polar body and the spindle, carried out ROSI from 11.5 to 13 h post-hCG administration, then activated by Sr2+, and finally compared the development of ROSI zygotes, including the formation of pronuclei and development of blastocyst. Between 11.5 and 13 h post-hCG administration, the rate of 2PN formation by ROSI at 3 o'clock was the highest among all treated oocytes. Moreover, the blastocyst rate of zygotes with two pronuclei (2PN) was up to 27.41%. These results suggest that the time and position of ROSI can significantly influence the formation of 2PN, that the rates of 2PN formation are closely correlated with blastocyst formation and that the formation of 2PN is necessary for later embryo development.
Conventional methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer either by electrofusion or direct nucleus injection have very low efficiency in animal cloning, especially interspecies cloning. To increase the efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer, in the present study we introduced a method of whole cell intracytoplasmic injection (WCICI) combined with chemical enucleation into panda–rabbit nuclear transfer and assessed the effects of this method on the enucleation rate of rabbit oocytes and the in vitro development and spindle structures of giant panda–rabbit reconstructed embryos. Our results demonstrated that chemical enucleation can be used in rabbit oocytes and the optimal enucleation result can be obtained. When we compared the rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation of subzonal injection (SUZI) and WCICI using chemically enucleated rabbit oocytes as cytoplasm recipients, the rates in the WCICI group were higher than those in the SUZI group, but there was no statistically siginificant difference (p>0.05) between the two methods. The microtubule structures of rabbit oocytes enucleated by chemicals and giant panda–rabbit embryos reconstructed by WCICI combined with chemical enucleation were normal. Therefore the present study suggests that WCICI combined with chemical enucleation can provide an efficient and less labor-intensive protocol of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer for producing giant panda cloned embryos.
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