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Air dispersal of respiratory viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 has not been systematically reported. The incidence and factors associated with air dispersal of respiratory viruses are largely unknown.
We performed air sampling by collecting 72,000 L of air over 6 hours for pediatric and adolescent patients infected with parainfluenza virus 3 (PIF3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus. The patients were singly or 2-patient cohort isolated in airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) from December 3, 2021, to January 26, 2022. The viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and air samples were measured. Factors associated with air dispersal were investigated and analyzed.
Of 20 singly isolated patients with median age of 30 months (range, 3 months–15 years), 7 (35%) had air dispersal of the viruses compatible with their NPA results. These included 4 (40%) of 10 PIF3-infected patients, 2 (66%) of 3 RSV-infected patients, and 1 (50%) of 2 adenovirus-infected patients. The mean viral load in their room air sample was 1.58×103 copies/mL. Compared with 13 patients (65%) without air dispersal, these 7 patients had a significantly higher mean viral load in their NPA specimens (6.15×107 copies/mL vs 1.61×105 copies/mL; P < .001). Another 14 patients were placed in cohorts as 7 pairs infected with the same virus (PIF3, 2 pairs; RSV, 3 pairs; rhinovirus, 1 pair; and adenovirus, 1 pair) in double-bed AIIRs, all of which had air dispersal. The mean room air viral load in 2-patient cohorts was significantly higher than in rooms of singly isolated patients (1.02×104 copies/mL vs 1.58×103 copies/mL; P = .020).
Air dispersal of common respiratory viruses may have infection prevention and public health implications.
The essence of sub-critical transition of oscillatory boundary-layer flows is the non-modal growth of finite-amplitude disturbances. The current understanding of the mechanisms of the orderly and bypass transitions of oscillatory boundary-layer flows is limited. The present study adopts optimisation approaches to predict the maximum energy amplification of two- and three-dimensional perturbations in response to the optimal initial disturbance with or without external forcing. A series of direct numerical simulations are also performed to compare with the results obtained from the stability analyses. In particular, the optimal initial perturbation similar to a Tollmien–Schlichting (T–S) wave yields the largest transient growth under the combined effects of the Orr mechanism and inflectional point instability. With a considerable level of two-dimensional disturbance, the vortex tube nonlinearly develops from the T–S-like wave, and then either deforms into a $\varLambda$-vortex in the near-wall region or rolls up to the free shear region. The further burst of turbulence can follow the first pathway as K-type transition or the second one as vortex tube breakdown due to the elliptical instability. Additionally, non-modal growth can initiate the inception of streaky structures by favourable three-dimensional initial perturbations and/or forcing. The secondary instabilities responsible for the streak breakdown are classified as the varicose (symmetric) and sinuous (anti-symmetric) modes. Under a sufficiently high level of three-dimensional disturbance, the bypass transition is predominantly characterised by the formation of the sinuous mode and turbulent spots, which leads to the suppression of inflection point instability.
The majority of plant viral disease is transmitted and spread by insect vectors in the field. The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is the only efficient vector for rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating plant virus that infects multiple grain crops, including rice, maize, and wheat. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in various biological processes. However, little is known about whether ABC transporters affect virus infection in insects. In this study, RBSDV accumulation was significantly reduced in L. striatellus after treatment with verapamil, an effective inhibitor of ABC transporters. Thirty-four ABC transporter genes were identified in L. striatellus and expression analysis showed that LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, after RBSDV infection. LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were expressed during all developmental stages, and LsABCG9 was highly expressed in the midgut of L. striatellus. Knockdown of LsABCF2 promoted RBSDV accumulation, while knockdown of LsABCG9 suppressed RBSDV accumulation in L. striatellus. Our data showed that L. striatellus might upregulate the expression of LsABCF2 and downregulate LsABCG9 expression to suppress RBSDV infection. These results will contribute to understanding the effects of ABC transporters on virus transmission and provide theoretical basis for virus management in the field.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of quality of life (QOL) in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
In the cross-sectional study, 66 lower-limb amputees were recruited. The prosthetics-related QOL was assessed using the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) in terms of the scales of utility, appearance, sounds, residual limb health, perceived response, frustration, social burden, ambulation, and well-being. The score of each PEQ subscale was calculated and compared among the cohorts with different demographic characteristics.
The PEQ scores showed that the scales of sounds, residual limb health, and frustration were still low in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The comparison of PEQ scales among cohorts with different demographic characteristics indicated that the potential demographic risk factors, namely, age, marital status, educational level, living independence, and comorbidity, were associated with prosthesis-related QOL.
The prosthesis-related QOL of the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake has been partly documented in this study. The potential demographic risk factors associated with QOL of amputees were also identified. These findings could enhance the understanding of prosthesis-related QOL of lower-limb amputees sustained in an earthquake and facilitate the optimization of post-disaster rehabilitation strategies.
Hong Kong is an intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden city in Asia Pacific with slow decline of case notification in the last decade. By 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units – variable number of tandem repeats genotyping, we examined 534 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected from culture-positive hospitalised TB patients in a 1.7 million population geographic region in the city. Overall, 286 (75%) were classified as Beijing genotype, of which 216 (76%) and 59 (21%) belonged to modern and ancient sub-lineage, respectively. Only two cases were genetically clustered while spatial clustering was absent. Male gender, permanent residency in Hong Kong and born in Hong Kong or Mainland China were associated with Beijing genotype. The high prevalence of Beijing modern lineage was similar to that in East Asia, which reflected the pattern resulting from population migration. The paucity of clustering suggested that reactivation accounted for most of the TB disease cases, which was and echoed by observation that half were 60 years old or above, and the presence of co-morbid medical conditions. The predominance of reactivation TB cases in intermediate burden localities implies that the detection and control of latent TB infection would be the major challenge in achieving TB elimination.
The neurobiological basis of neuroticism in late-life depression (LLD) is understudied. We hypothesized that older depressed subjects scoring high in measures of neuroticism would have smaller hippocampal and prefrontal volumes compared with non-neurotic older depressed subjects and with nondepressed comparison subjects based on previous research. Non-demented subjects were recruited and were either depressed with high neuroticism (n = 65), depressed with low neuroticism (n = 36), or never depressed (n = 27). For imaging outcomes focused on volumetric analyses, we found no significant between-group differences in hippocampal volume. However, we found several frontal lobe regions for which depressed subjects with high neuroticism scores had smaller volumes compared with non-neurotic older depressed subjects and with nondepressed comparison subjects, controlling for age and gender. These regions included the frontal pole, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left pars orbitalis. In addition, we found that non-neurotic depressed subjects had a higher volume of non-white matter hypointensities on T1-weighted images (possibly related to cerebrovascular disease) than did neurotic depressed subjects. Our finding that depressed subjects low in neuroticism had higher volumes of non-white matter hypointensities is consistent with prior literature on “vascular depression.” In contrast, the finding that those high in neuroticism had smaller frontal volume than depressed subjects low in neuroticism and never-depressed subjects highlight the importance of frontal circuitry in the subgroup of older depressed individuals with comorbid neuroticism. Together, these results implicate different neural mechanisms in older neurotic and non-neurotic depressed groups and suggest that multiple biological pathologies may lead to different clinical expressions of LLD.
Nosocomial outbreaks leading to healthcare worker (HCW) infection and death have been increasingly reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
We implemented a strategy to reduce nosocomial acquisition.
We summarized our experience in implementing a multipronged infection control strategy in the first 300 days (December 31, 2019, to October 25, 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic under the governance of Hospital Authority in Hong Kong.
Of 5,296 COVID-19 patients, 4,808 (90.8%) were diagnosed in the first pandemic wave (142 cases), second wave (896 cases), and third wave (3,770 cases) in Hong Kong. With the exception of 1 patient who died before admission, all COVID-19 patients were admitted to the public healthcare system for a total of 78,834 COVID-19 patient days. The median length of stay was 13 days (range, 1–128). Of 81,955 HCWs, 38 HCWs (0.05%; 2 doctors and 11 nurses and 25 nonprofessional staff) acquired COVID-19. With the exception of 5 of 38 HCWs (13.2%) infected by HCW-to-HCW transmission in the nonclinical settings, no HCW had documented transmission from COVID-19 patients in the hospitals. The incidence of COVID-19 among HCWs was significantly lower than that of our general population (0.46 per 1,000 HCWs vs 0.71 per 1,000 population; P = .008). The incidence of COVID-19 among professional staff was significantly lower than that of nonprofessional staff (0.30 vs 0.66 per 1,000 full-time equivalent; P = .022).
A hospital-based approach spared our healthcare service from being overloaded. With our multipronged infection control strategy, no nosocomial COVID-19 in was identified among HCWs in the first 300 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong.
In this work ice breaking caused by a pair of interacting collapsing bubbles was studied by an experimental approach. The bubbles were generated by an underwater electric discharge simultaneously, positioned either horizontally or vertically below a floating ice plate and observed via high-speed photography. The bubble-induced shock waves, which turn out to be crucial to the fracturing of the ice, were visualized using a shadowgraph method and also measured using pressure transduces. Unique bubble behaviour was observed, including bubble coalescence, bubble splitting, inclined counter-jets and asymmetric toroidal bubble collapse. Bubble dynamic properties, such as jet speed, jet energy and bubble centre displacement, were measured. Shock wave emission and ice breaking capability of the two bubbles were investigated over a range of inter-bubble and bubble–boundary distances. Regions where the damaging potential of the bubble pair are strengthened or weakened were summarized and possible reasons for the variation in the ice breaking capability were analysed based on bubble morphology, jet characteristics and shock wave pressure. The findings may contribute to more efficient ice breaking and also inspire new ways to manipulate cavitation bubble damage.
The role of severe respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–laden aerosols in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. Discordant findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples were noted in early reports.
Sampling of air close to 6 asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients with and without surgical masks was performed with sampling devices using sterile gelatin filters. Frequently touched environmental surfaces near 21 patients were swabbed before daily environmental disinfection. The correlation between the viral loads of patients’ clinical samples and environmental samples was analyzed.
All air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the 6 patients singly isolated inside airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) with 12 air changes per hour. Of 377 environmental samples near 21 patients, 19 (5.0%) were positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a median viral load of 9.2 × 102 copies/mL (range, 1.1 × 102 to 9.4 × 104 copies/mL). The contamination rate was highest on patients’ mobile phones (6 of 77, 7.8%), followed by bed rails (4 of 74, 5.4%) and toilet door handles (4 of 76, 5.3%). We detected a significant correlation between viral load ranges in clinical samples and positivity rate of environmental samples (P < .001).
SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable by air samplers, which suggests that the airborne route is not the predominant mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Wearing a surgical mask, appropriate hand hygiene, and thorough environmental disinfection are sufficient infection control measures for COVID-19 patients isolated singly in AIIRs. However, this conclusion may not apply during aerosol-generating procedures or in cohort wards with large numbers of COVID-19 patients.
Previous studies have found contradicting results with regard to the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to evaluate the association between antipsychotic use in pregnancy and GDM.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases up to March 2019, for data from observational studies assessing the association between gestational antipsychotic use and GDM. Non-English studies, animal studies, case reports, conference abstracts, book chapters, reviews and summaries were excluded. The primary outcome was GDM. Estimates were pooled using a random effect model, with the I2 statistic used to estimate heterogeneity of results. Our study protocol was registered with PROSPERO number: CRD42018095014.
In total 10 cohort studies met the inclusion criteria in our systematic review with 6642 exposed and 1 860 290 unexposed pregnancies. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis with a pooled adjusted relative risk of 1.24 overall [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.42]. The I2 result suggested low heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 6.7%, p = 0.373).
We found that the use of antipsychotic medications during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of GDM in mothers. However, the evidence is still insufficient, especially for specific drug classes. We recommend more studies to investigate this association for specific drug classes, dosages and comorbidities to help clinicians to manage the risk of GDM if initiation or continuation of antipsychotic prescriptions during pregnancy is needed.
Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalised patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46 549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37 190 (80 %) and 9359 (20 %) patients had NRS-2002 scores <3 and ≥3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥3 had longer lengths of stay (12·6 (sd 7·8) v. 10·4 (sd 6·2) d, P < 0·05), higher mortality rates (9·6 v. 2·5 %, P < 0·05) and higher incidence of AKI (28 v. 16 %, P < 0·05) than patients with normal nutritional status. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (AUC 0·79 and 0·71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0·80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than patients with normal nutritional status.
Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12–19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
Non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBCs) play an important role in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A novel NRBC based on the method of characteristics using timeline interpolations is proposed for fluid dynamics solved by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). It is performed by four layers of particles whose pressures and velocities are obtained through the Lagrange interpolation in the time domain which is derived from the propagation of characteristic waves between particles. The proposed NRBC can allow outward travelling pressure and velocity messages to pass through the boundary without obvious reflection. That is, with the implementation of the NRBC, the solution in a finite computational domain of interest is close to that in an infinite domain. Several numerical tests show that this NRBC is robust and applicable for a broad variety of hydrodynamics ranging from low to high speed.
This work focuses on using the power of a collapsing bubble in ice breaking. We experimentally validated the possibility and investigated the mechanism of ice breaking with a single collapsing bubble, where the bubble was generated by underwater electric discharge and collapsed at various distances under ice plates with different thicknesses. Characteristics of the ice fracturing, bubble jets and shock waves emitted during the collapse of the bubble were captured. The pattern of the ice fracturing is related to the ice thickness and the bubble–ice distance. Fractures develop from the top of the ice plate, i.e. the ice–air interface, and this is attributed to the tension caused by the reflection of the shock waves at the interface. Such fracturing is lessened when the thickness of the ice plate or the bubble–ice distance increases. Fractures may also form from the bottom of the ice plate upon the shock wave incidence when the bubble–ice distance is sufficiently small. The ice plate motion and its effect on the bubble behaviour were analysed. The ice plate motion results in higher jet speed and greater elongation of the bubble shape along the vertical direction. It also causes the bubble initiated close to the ice plate to split and emit multiple shock waves at the end of the collapse. The findings suggest that collapsing bubbles can be used as a brand new way of ice breaking.
This study attempted to investigate and validate whether epididymis cold storage could be a suitable alternative for short-term preservation of spermatozoa. Mouse cauda epididymides and spermatozoa were preserved at 4–8°C from 1 day to 6 weeks. From days 1 to 10, motility and fertility were daily examined when motility loss occurred. From week 1, spermatozoa were used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) at weekly intervals to test their fertility, and spermatozoa DNA integrity was determined by comet assay. We found that motility and progressive motility scores gradually decreased with storage time. In nearly all spermatozoa, DNA integrity was maintained from days 1 to 10, but the percentage of spermatozoa with damaged DNA significantly increased from week 2 to week 6. Spermatozoa retained fertility until day 6, although fertility gradually decreased after day 3. From week 1 to week 5, fertilization rates by ICSI were more than 82.69% but decreased gradually after week 3. We found that spermatozoa preserved in the epididymis at 4–8°C had progressively lower motility, fertility and proportion of undamaged DNA, but could still fertilize oocytes. However, all the parameters of cold-preserved spermatozoa were completely inferior to that from cold-preserved cauda epididymides. The results imply that cold storage of cauda epididymides could be conducive to short-term preservation of spermatozoa, and the cold-stored spermatozoa can resist DNA denaturation, which is necessary for maintaining reproductive ability.
Interleukin (IL)-13-associated signal pathway plays an important role in schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis. In this study we tried to investigate the effects of corilagin to ameliorate schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis through regulating IL-13-associated signal pathway in vitro and in vivo. Cellular model was set up with hepatic stellate cells-T6 cells stimulated by rIL-13 and male Balb/c mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum cercariaeas as animal model. Liver histological changes were observed with haematoxylin and eosin staining. Masson staining was employed to observe the change of egg granulomas. Expression of Col (collagen) and Col III were examined with Immunohistochemistry. Western bolt was employed to detect the JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 proteins. The mRNA expression of Col I, Col III, IL-13, JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. As a result, less inflammatory changes were found in all corilagin groups compared with model group and praziquantel group. The mRNA levels of Col I, Col III, IL-13, JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 were significantly decreased after corilagin intervention (P < 0·01). JAK-1 and IL-13Rα1 protein levels were also greatly decreased in the corilagin groups (P < 0·01). In conclusion, corilagin could ameliorate schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis by down-regulating the expression of IL-13 and signal molecules in IL-13 pathway.
Chemoreception is a key process for insects. Odorant messages diffuse through the air and are translated into physiological signals by chemosensory receptor neurons in sensilla that are mainly located on insect antennae. We sequenced the antenna transcriptome of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), which is a serious pest of stored grains throughout regions with warm climates, and performed transcriptome analysis on R. dominica antennae. We obtained 57 million 90-base pair-long reads that we assembled into 37 877 unigenes with a mean size of 1007 base pairs. Predicted protein sequences were matched with Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (79.1%), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (1.7%), Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) (1.3%), Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (1.2%), and other (16.7%) homologues. In chemosensory gene families, we identified transcripts that encoded the following putative genes: 12 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), four pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs), eight chemosensory proteins (CSPs), five sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), six odorant receptors, and eight ionotropic receptors. The diversity of the predicted OBPs, PBPs, and CSPs are also discussed. These findings will advance our understanding of olfaction process by this pest.