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To investigate the association between suicide death and serum cholesterol levels as measured at times close to suicide death.
We conducted a nested case-control study of 41 cases of suicide deaths and 205 matched controls with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels till 3 years before suicide death in a large cohort of Japanese workers.
Individuals in the lowest versus highest tertile/predefined category of TC in a Japanese working population had a three- to four-fold greater risk of suicide death. Each 10 mg/dl decrement of average TC was associated with an 18% increased chance of suicide death (95% confidence interval, 2–35%). Similar results were found for TC levels at each year.
These results suggest that a low serum TC level in recent past is associated with an increased risk of suicide death.
This chapter provides an overview of the chief epigenetic mechanisms: DNA cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation, histone protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) and higher-order chromatin remodeling, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) regulation, and RNA editing. High level of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is found in gene regulatory regions and generally associated with transcriptional repression. This occurs because DNA methylation inhibits the transcriptional machinery from accessing DNA. Chromatin is implicated in a broad range of processes including transcriptional regulation, X chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, DNA replication and repair, and the maintenance of genomic integrity. RNA editing events can alter amino acids encoded by corresponding genomic DNA, alternative splicing patterns, and regulatory sequences and their associated interactions. Preliminary data suggest that DNA methylation is modulated by circadian rhythms. DNA methylation at specific genomic loci can play a role in the pathophysiology of sleep disorders.
Collimated sputtering is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method where a collimator is inserted between a conventional “full-face-erosion” sputtering target and a substrate (Figure 1). The collimator is a plate of hexagonal cells that acts as a filter to remove obliquely incident atoms before they arrive at the substrate. Only material with a nearly normal incidence trajectory may pass through the collimator and deposit on the substrate. Collimated sputtering was initially evaluated for conductor-level depositions in order to improve the filling of recessed features. Although the method has been successfully used to fill damascene structures, depositing thick conductor films is inefficient because most of the sputtered material is captured by the collimator, causing the collimator to clog quickly, necessitating frequent replacement.
A more common use of collimated sputtering is associated with the deposition of thin “liner” films. For example, thin, collimated aluminum alloy films have been used as underlayers for aluminum reflow processes. Also, collimated Ti/TiN films are used as contact/adhesion layers for chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) W metallization. Collimation provides better bottom and sidewall coverage for small, high aspect-ratio features than conventionally sputtered films do.
Coliimated sputtered films often exhibit unique properties because the angle of incidence of depositing atoms is controlled. Collimated AlMg alloys have superior electromigration resistance compared to noncollimated AlMg films. Collimated TiN films appear to exhibit denser grain structures when compared to films deposited with higher amounts of obliquely incident flux (Figure 2).
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