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An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars
The paper describes a low temperature bond process based on an oxygen plasma pretreatment followed by 200°C and 400°C annealing which was to be integrated in our technological process flow to produce micromechanical devices in bulk and surface micromachining like acceleration sensors, gyroscopes and mirror arrays . The results of infrared transmission and the measured bond strengths of the prepared test wafers will be presented in dependence on various pre-treatments and annealing times as well as temperatures. First die separation tests as well as additional detailed investigations showed that the bonding process has the potential to replace an anodic bonding process. During the development of the low temperature bond process it was shown that it is possible to reach a bond strength between 1.5 J/m2 and 2.8 J/m2 depending on the annealing conditions. To optimize the necessary size of the bond frame and to quantify the bond strength limits of the process a test pattern was designed with different arrangements of sensor structures like bond frames, spaces and chevron notch structures. The investigation showed the achieved bond yield in dependence on different sensor structures and bond conditions.
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