It was only after Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan regained the Umayyad caliphate that concerted efforts were made to extend Umayyad sway into the Maghrib. These efforts turned into a wave of expansion that extended all the way into the 2nd century A.H./8th century A.D. and reached far into the Iberian Peninsula and across the Pyrenees. These efforts also constitute the history of the Maghrib, a history aptly described by the title of the book under review: A Gateway to Hell, a Gateway to Paradise. This title reflects the conflicted attitudes held by early Muslims regarding the region and its history. In the beginning, Umayyad policies were indeed contradictory. For example, Tariq ibn Ziyad, a Berber, could lead Muslims into the Iberian Peninsula, while up to a time Damascus considered Berbers legal booty.