To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The fundamental basis of addiction is learning which is mediated by neuroplasticity. Treatment of addiction usually begins with detoxification. The signs and symptoms of withdrawal are usually opposite to the changes produced by the acute effects of the drug, appearing as a kind of rebound. The first treatment to use cross-tolerance as a maintenance strategy was discovered in heroin addiction by Vincent Dole and colleagues in the early 1960s. Researchers have been working for decades to learn the mechanism of action of important medications such as opioids. Another approach to the treatment of opioid addiction developed in preclinical laboratories involves the use of partial opioid agonists. The next advance in the treatment of tobacco dependence was the serendipitous discovery that the antidepressant bupropion reduced craving for cigarettes and improved abstinence rates. The clinical effects are analogous to the effects of buprenorphine in opioid addicts.