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Efficiently exploiting all sources of information such as labeled instances, classes’ representation, and relations of them has a high impact on the performance of Multi-Label Text Classification (MLTC) systems. Most of the current approaches use labeled documents as the primary source of information for MLTC. We investigate the effectiveness of different sources of information— such as the labeled training data, textual labels of classes, and taxonomy relations of classes— for MLTC. More specifically, first, for each document–class pair, different features are extracted using different sources of information. The features reflect the similarity of classes and documents. Then, MLTC is considered to be a ranking problem, and a learning to rank (LTR) approach is used for ranking classes regarding documents and selecting labels of documents. An important characteristic of many MLTC instances is that documents can belong to multiple classes and there are implicit relations between classes. We apply score propagation on top of LTR to incorporate co-occurrence patterns of classes in labeled documents. Our main findings are the following. First, using an LTR approach integrating all features, we observe significantly better performance than previous systems for MLTC. Specifically, we show that simple classification approaches fail when there is a high number of classes. Second, the analysis of feature weights reveals the relative importance of various sources of evidence, also giving insight into the underlying classification problem. Interestingly, the results indicate that the titles of documents are more informative than all other sources of information. Third, a lean-and-mean system using only four features is able to perform at 96% of the large LTR model that we propose in this paper. Fourth, using the co-occurrence information of classes helps in classifying documents more accurately. Our results show that the co-occurrence information is more helpful when the underlying classifier has a poor performance.
This paper describes the digitization and enrichment of the Canadian House of Commons English Debates from 1901 to present. We start by laying out the general framework in which this project took place and then present the structure of the database and provide guidelines to prospective users. The paper concludes with the introduction of www.lipad.ca, an online platform designed as a hub for archiving Canadian political data, with the parliamentary proceedings at the centre of its architecture.
Craig's interpolation lemma (if φ → ψ is valid, then φ → θ and θ → ψ are valid, for θ a formula constructed using only primitive symbols which occur both in φ and ψ) fails for many propositional and first order modal logics. The interpolation property is often regarded as a sign of well-matched syntax and semantics. Hybrid logicians claim that modal logic is missing important syntactic machinery, namely tools for referring to worlds, and that adding such machinery solves many technical problems. The paper presents strong evidence for this claim by defining interpolation algorithms for both propositional and first order hybrid logic. These algorithms produce interpolants for the hybrid logic of every elementary class of frames satisfying the property that a frame is in the class if and only if all its point-generated subframes are in the class. In addition, on the class of all frames, the basic algorithm is conservative: on purely modal input it computes interpolants in which the hybrid syntactic machinery does not occur.
Hybrid languages are expansions of propositional modal languages which can refer to (or even quantify over) worlds. The use of strong hybrid languages dates back to at least [Pri67], but recent work (for example [BS98, BT98a, BT99]) has focussed on a more constrained system called H(↓, @). We show in detail that (↓, @) is modally natural. We begin by studying its expressivity, and provide model theoretic characterizations (via a restricted notion of Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game, and an enriched notion of bisimulation) and a syntactic characterization (in terms of bounded formulas). The key result to emerge is that (↓, @) corresponds to the fragment of first-order logic which is invariant for generated submodels. We then show that (↓, @) enjoys (strong) interpolation, provide counterexamples for its finite variable fragments, and show that weak interpolation holds for the sublanguage (@). Finally, we provide complexity results for (@) and other fragments and variants, and sharpen known undecidability results for (↓, @).
The aim of this paper is to give a new proof for the decidability and finite model property of first-order logic with two variables (without function symbols), using a combinatorial theorem due to Herwig. The results are proved in the framework of polyadic equality set algebras of dimension two (Pse2). The new proof also shows the known results that the universal theory of Pse2 is decidable and that every finite Pse2 can be represented on a finite base. Since the class Cs2 of cylindric set algebras of dimension 2 forms a reduct of Pse2, these results extend to Cs2 as well.
In this paper we show that relativized versions of relation set algebras and cylindric set algebras have undecidable equational theories if we include coordinatewise versions of the counting operations into the similarity type. We apply these results to the guarded fragment of first-order logic.
We investigate amalgamation properties of relational type algebras. Besides purely algebraic interest, amalgamation in a class of algebras is important because it leads to interpolation results for the logic corresponding to that class (cf. ). The multi-modal logic corresponding to relational type algebras became known under the name of “arrow logic” (cf. [18, 17]), and has been studied rather extensively lately (cf. ). Our research was inspired by the following result of Andréka et al. .
Let K be a class of relational type algebras such that
(i) composition is associative,
(ii) K is a class of boolean algebras with operators, and
(iii) K contains the representable relation algebras RRA.
Then the equational theory of K is undecidable.
On the other hand, there are several classes of relational type algebras (e.g., NA, WA denned below) whose equational (even universal) theories are decidable (cf. ). Composition is not associative in these classes. Theorem 5 indicates that also with respect to amalgamation (a very weak form of) associativity forms a borderline. We first recall the relevant definitions.
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