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As practitioners of a historical science, paleontologists and geoscientists are well versed in the idea that the ability to understand and to anticipate the future relies upon our collective knowledge of the past. Despite this understanding, the fundamental role that the history of paleontology and the geosciences plays in shaping the structure and culture of our disciplines is seldom recognized and therefore not acted upon sufficiently. Here, we present a brief review of the history of paleontology and geology in Western countries, with a particular focus on North America since the 1800s. Western paleontology and geology are intertwined with systematic practices of exclusion, oppression, and erasure that arose from their direct participation in the extraction of geological and biological resources at the expense of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC). Our collective failure to acknowledge this history hinders our ability to address these issues meaningfully and systemically in present-day educational, academic, and professional settings. By discussing these issues and suggesting some ways forward, we intend to promote a deeper reflection upon our collective history and a broader conversation surrounding racism, colonialism, and exclusion within our scientific communities. Ultimately, it is necessary to listen to members of the communities most impacted by these issues to create actionable steps forward while holding ourselves accountable for the past.
This study surveyed Malaysian aborigine people to determine the prevalence of alcohol abuse dependence, psychiatric morbidity and psychosocial correlates among Malaysians aborigines. Studies among minority group in developed nations repeatedly showed severe drinking problems (Lomnitz, 1976; Gordon, 1978; Karno et al, 1987; Yamamoto et al, 1993).
Household survey with informed consent taken. Selected household were chosen and orang asli (aborigines) age 18 above were interviewed in Kuala Betis areas. Alcohol screening used AUDIT questionnaires and Psychiatric morbidity measured by MINI. Odds ratio was used as measures of the association for the variables. The data analysis was done using SPSS version. 276 orang asli were interviewed during the study. Majority are within age group of 18-29 years of age (37%) with the mean age 36.51 years old. The M: F (50.7% and 49.3%). Senoi ethnic group is the majority (97.8%). 28% has no formal education and 58% received primary school education.
Majority are married (82.2%). Half of them are employed and more than half received less than RM 500 monthly (USD 150). Types of alcohol use mainly beer and whisky. 90.24% have AUDIT score less than 7.
Multivariate analysis showed only those employed are significantly associated with alcohol problems, Odds ratio= 0.089, 95% CI (0.033-0.246), P< 0.001.
Prevalence of alcohol use among orang asli is comparable with general population. Employed people may have more money to buy alcoholic beverages. Orang asli probably need more attention on awareness program and further interventions.
The evidence informing the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with psychiatric disorders is weak.
This cohort study used data from all patients, aged ≥ 30, registered in 140 primary care practices (n = 524,952) in London to estimate the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco consumption, obesity, and physical inactivity, between 2005 and 2015, for patients with a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar or personality disorder. The role of antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation in these associations was also investigated. The age at detection of cardiovascular risk factor was compared between patients with and without psychiatric disorders. Variables, for exposures and outcomes, defined from general practitioners records, were analysed using multivariate regression.
Patients with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk for cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes, with hazard ratios: 2.42 (2.20–2.67) to 1.31 (1.25–1.37), hyperlipidemia, with hazard ratios: 1.78 (1.60–1.97) to 1.25 (1.23–1.28), and obesity. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation did not change these associations, except for smoking and physical inactivity. Antidepressants were associated with higher risk of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Antipsychotics were associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Antidepressants and antipsychotics were associated with lower risk of other risk factors. Patients with psychiatric conditions have later detection of cardiovascular risk factors. The interpretation of these results should acknowledge the lower rates of detection of risk factors in mentally ill patients.
Cardiovascular risk factors require special clinical attention among patients with psychiatric disorders. Further research could study the effect of antidepressants and antipsychotics on cardiovascular risk factors.
We investigated relationship between pasture biomass and measures of height and NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index). The pastures were tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica) located in Tasmania, Victoria and in the Northern Tablelands of NSW, Australia. Using the Trimble® GreenSeeker® Handheld active optical sensor (AOS) to measure NDVI, and a rising plate meter, the optimal model to estimate green dry biomass (GDM) during two years was a combination of NDVI and falling plate height index. The combined index was significantly correlated with GDM in each region during winter and spring (r2=0.62–0.77, P<0.001). Regional calibrations provided a smaller error in estimates of green biomass, required for potential application in the field, compared to a single overall calibration. Data collected in a third year will be used to test the accuracy of the models.
This paper evaluates the potential of very high resolution multispectral (Worldview-3) satellite imagery for mapping yield parameters in avocado and macadamia orchards. An evaluation of 18 structural and pigment based vegetation indices (VIs) derived from Worldview-3 imagery identified a positive relationship to nut/ fruit weight (kg/tree) R2>0.69 for macadamia and R2>0.68 for avocado; and nut/ fruit number (per tree) R2>0.6 for macadamia and R2>0.61 for avocado. Using the algorithms derived between the optimal VI and the measured parameter, yield and nut/ fruit number maps were derived for each block. In the absence of a commercial yield monitor, the resulting yield maps offer significant benefit to growers for improving orchard management, harvest scheduling, and forward selling decisions.
Introduction: Paramedics frequently attend out-of-hospital seizure patients. They administer oxygen, check blood glucose levels and if within scope of practice, start IVs and administer benzodiazepines. Little is know about how frequently these procedures are performed. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of procedures performed by paramedics (Advanced Care (ACP), Primary Care IV (PCP-IV) and Primary Care non-IV (PCP)) attending seizure patients in a regional paramedic base hospital program. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a secondary database of ambulance call reports (ACRs) (January 01-December 31, 2014). All 2854 ACRs with paramedic determined primary / final problem codes of “seizure” were identified from total calls performed by 8 municipal paramedic services (MPSs), covering an urban and rural population of 1.4 million. MPSs used iMedic electronic ACRs. A 10% sample, generated using a random number table, was analyzed. ACRs were manually searched and data extracted onto spreadsheets. Findings were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results: 285 calls were analyzed; (adult 72.7%, paediatric (age <18) 27.3%). Paramedics witnessed seizures in 8.1% of all calls they attended; (paediatric 7.8%). The blood sugar was checked in 87.9% of adult calls; (ACP 88.7%, PCP-IV 89%, PCP 77.8%) and in 70.5% of paediatric calls; (ACP 72.0%, PCP-IV 63.3%, PCP 70.5%). Oxygen was administered in 80.7% of adult calls; (ACP 85.9%, PCP-IV 78.0%, PCP 80.7%) and 83.3% of paediatric calls; (ACP 92.0%, PCP-IV 80.1%, PCP 82.4%). IVs were started by paramedics (if in scope of practice) in 28.0% of adult calls; (ACP 47.9%, PCP-IV 16.1%) and 6.6% of paediatric calls; (ACP 8.0%, PCP-IV 5.6%) Midazolam was administered in 10.4% of ACP attended calls and in 91.0% of the calls were they witnessed seizures. Transport occurred in 93.2% of adult calls and 100% of paediatric calls. Conclusion: ACPs were more likely to perform procedures on seizure patients than PCPs or PC-IVs. Children were much less likely to have procedures performed on them - blood sugar checks, and IV starts - but more likely receive oxygen and be transported. These findings have training implications.
Introduction: Paramedics often attend seizure patients in the pre-hospital setting. Received wisdom is that hypoglycemia is frequently present during a seizure or is a ‘cause’ of seizures. Recent literature disputes this. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in patients identified as having “seizure” listed as the primary or final problem code in Ambulance Call Reports from a large regional paramedic base hospital program. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a database of ambulance call reports (ACRs) from January 01-December 31, 2014. All 2854 ACRs with paramedic determined primary or final problem codes of “seizure” were identified from a database of all calls performed by 8 municipal paramedic services covering a total urban and rural population of 1.4 million. Municipal paramedic services used iMedic electronic ACRs. A 10% sample generated by a random number table was analyzed. ACRs were manually searched and data extracted onto spreadsheets. Results were described using frequencies and summary statistics. Results: A total of 285 call were analyzed. 207 (72.6%) calls were adults and 78 (27.4%) were paediatric (age <18). Seizures were witnessed by paramedics in 23/285 (8.1%) calls; adults 17/207 (8.2%), paediatric 6/78 (7.7%). A blood sugar was determined in 237/285 (83.2%) of all calls; adults 182/207 (87.9%), paediatric 55/78 (70.5%). In calls were paramedics witnessed a seizure a blood sugar was determined 17/21 (80.9%) of the time; adults 13/17 (76.5%), paediatric 6/6 (100%) Hypoglycemia (BS < 4.0 mm/L) was found in only 1 case - 1/237 (0.4%); adults 0/ 207 (0%), paediatric 1/78 (1.3%). The child was age 1, had a GCS 13, and the blood sugar was 3.9 mm/L. Conclusion: Hypoglycemia was rarely found in patients who had a seizure and were attended to by paramedics in the pre-hospital setting. The routine determination of blood sugars in all patients who have had a seizure prior to paramedic arrival should be reconsidered.
Introduction: Clear paramedic-physician telecommunications (patches) are critical in systems utilizing on-line medical control. In systems using extensive medical directives individual paramedics patch infrequently. Investigations of specific problem calls indicated that communication problems were more common than believed. Existing literature on this topic is sparse. This project is a quality assurance exercise undertaken to understand the extent and nature of problems in paramedic-physician telecommunications Methods: Retrospective analysis of anonymized transcriptions made from MP3 audio files recorded as part of normal operating procedures by the Central Ambulance Communication Centre during January-March 2014. All calls where telecommunication occurred between paramedics from 4 ambulance services and base hospital physicians providing on-line medical oversight during ambulance calls were included. Transcripts were read multiple times and data extracted onto spreadsheets for frequency analysis. Further thematic framework analysis of emergent themes was done. Results: All 42 patches were transcribed and used for analysis. 36 (85.7%) were for termination of resuscitation orders, 4 (9.5%) were for advice, and 2 (4.8%) were for orders not covered by medical directives. Communication problems were identified in 40 (95.2%) patches. Most had multiple problems. These included disconnections (23.8%), difficulty hearing one another (40.5%) - indicated by phrases such as “sorry?” “what?”, “I can’t hear you” - or caused by individuals interrupting each other (83.3%), and talking simultaneously (47.6%). Signaling the end of “talk turns” - such as “10-4” or “over” - was never used. Instead, terms like “yah” and “OK” were used. When communication went awry, time was spent trying to repair the mis/poor communication. This led to repeating information or attempting to ‘sell’ the case by providing information unnecessary for decision making - such as during a request for termination of resuscitation, “there is vomit on the floor”. Conclusion: Paramedic-physician telecommunication problems were extremely common. They involved technical (mechanical problems) and human factors (disorganized radio ‘technique’). The high incidence of telecommunication problems identified is concerning. Critical clinical decisions (e.g. ceasing resuscitation) depend on clear communication. Further study of these issues is warranted.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Choline is an essential nutrient and can also be obtained by de novo synthesis via an oestrogen responsive pathway. Choline can be oxidised to the methyl donor betaine, with short-term supplementation reported to lower plasma total homocysteine (tHcy); however, the effects of longer-term choline supplementation are less clear. We investigated the effect of choline supplementation on plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine and tHcy and B-vitamin status in postmenopausal women, a group more susceptible to low choline status. We also assessed whether supplementation altered plasma lipid profiles. In this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, forty-two healthy postmenopausal women received 1 g choline per d (as choline bitartrate), or an identical placebo supplement with their habitual diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 6 and week 12. Administration of choline increased median choline and betaine concentrations in plasma, with significant effects evident after 6 weeks of supplementation (P < 0·001) and remaining significant at 12 weeks (P < 0·001); no effect was observed on folate status or on plasma lipids. Choline supplementation induced a median (25th, 75th percentile) change in plasma tHcy concentration at week 6 of − 0·9 ( − 1·6, 0·2) μmol, a change which, when compared to that observed in the placebo group 0·6 ( − 0·4, 1·9) μmol, approached statistical significance (P = 0·058). Choline supplementation at a dose of 1 g/d significantly increases the circulating concentration of free choline, and can also significantly increase the concentration of the methyl donor, betaine, thereby potentially enhancing the betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase-mediated remethylation of tHcy. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN82708510.
To characterise the diets of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles and to determine the contribution of fish to intakes of nutrients important for fetal and neonatal development.
Observational, prospective study.
Seychelles Child Development Centre, Mahé, Republic of Seychelles.
Subjects and methods
Pregnant women (n 300) were recruited at their first visit to an antenatal clinic. At 28 weeks’ gestation subjects completed a 4 d diet diary (n 273) and intakes were analysed using dietary analysis software.
Mean (sd) energy intake was 9·0 (2·5) MJ/d and fat intakes were higher than UK recommendations for almost two-thirds of the cohort. Fish consumption was lower than in previous surveys, suggesting a move towards a more Westernised diet. Low intakes of a number of nutrients important during pregnancy for fetal development (Fe, Zn, Se and iodine) were observed. However, women who met the current recommendations for these nutrients consumed significantly more fish than those who did not (97 v. 73 g/d).
The present study highlights the importance of fish in the diet of pregnant Seychellois women for ensuring adequate intakes of micronutrients important in fetal development. Dietary patterns in Seychelles, however, are in a state of transition, with a move towards a Western-style diet as evidenced by higher fat and lower fish intakes. If these dietary trends continue and fish consumption declines further, micronutrient status may be compromised. These findings suggest caution in establishing public health policies that promote limitation of fish intake during pregnancy.
To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles.
A prospective study.
Republic of Seychelles.
Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples.
Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin < 15 ng/ml, sTfR > 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0·001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks’ gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery.
Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.