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Echinococcus shiquicus is currently limited to the Qinghai–Tibet plateau, a large mountainous region in China. Although the zoonotic potential remains unknown, progress is being made on the distribution and intermediate host range. In this study, we report E. shiquicus within Gansu and Qinghai provinces in regions located not only around the central areas but also the southeast edge of the plateau and describe their genetic relationship with previous isolates from the plateau. From 1879 plateau pikas examined, 2.39% (95% CI 1.79–3.18) were infected with E. shiquicus. The highest prevalence of 10.26% (4.06–23.58) was recorded in Makehe town, Qinghai province. Overall the prevalence was marginally higher in Qinghai (2.5%, CI 1.82–3.43) than in Gansu (2%, CI 1.02–3.89). The cox1 and nad1 genes demonstrated high and low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, respectively. The median-joining network constructed by the cox1–nad1 gene sequences demonstrated a star-like configuration with a median vector (unsampled haplotype) occupying the centre of the network. No peculiar distinction or common haplotype was observed in isolates originating from the different provinces. The presence of E. shiquicus in regions of the southeast and northeast edges of the Qinghai–Tibet plateau and high genetic variation warrants more investigation into the haplotype distribution and genetic polymorphism by exploring more informative DNA regions of the mitochondrial genome to provide epidemiologically useful insight into the population structure of E. shiquicus across the plateau and its axis.
Double-layer absorbers have recently been extensively studied because single-layer absorbers can hardly meet the requirements of advanced absorbing materials. However, determining how to couple the matching and absorption layers remains a challenge. In the present work, we applied the hydrothermal method to prepare an ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticle and a hierarchical MXene/Fe3O4 composite and then studied the microwave attenuation capabilities of single- and double-layer absorbers containing these two materials with different thicknesses. Absorbers with well-coupled layers showed improved absorption performance on account of the excellent impedance matching behavior of the Fe3O4 layer and the high microwave attenuation capability of the MXene/Fe3O4 layer. When the thickness of the matching layer filled with Fe3O4 was 0.1 mm and that of the absorption layer filled with MXene/Fe3O4 was 1.9 mm, a maximum reflection loss of −48.7 dB was achieved at 9.9 GHz. More importantly, when the thicknesses of the matching and absorption layers were 0.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively, the effective bandwidth was nearly 3.9 GHz. The double-layer absorbers with enhanced absorption properties may be regarded as a new generation of materials for electromagnetic wave absorption.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a higher risk of burn injury than in the normal population. Nevertheless, the influence of methylphenidate (MPH) on the risk of burn injury remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study analysed the effect of MPH on the risk of burn injury in children with ADHD.
Data were from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The sample comprised individuals younger than 18 years with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 90 634) in Taiwan's NHIRD between January 1996 and December 2013. We examined the cumulative effect of MPH on burn injury risk using Cox proportional hazards models. We conducted a sensitivity analysis for immortal time bias using a time-dependent Cox model and within-patient comparisons using the self-controlled case series model.
Children with ADHD taking MPH had a reduced risk of burn injury, with a cumulative duration of treatment dose-related effect, compared with those not taking MPH. Compared with children with ADHD not taking MPH, the adjusted hazard ratio for burn injury was 0.70 in children taking MPH for <90 days (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64–0.77) and 0.43 in children taking MPH for ≥90 days (95% CI 0.40–0.47), with a 50.8% preventable fraction. The negative association of MPH was replicated in age-stratified analysis using time-dependent Cox regression and self-controlled case series models.
This study showed that MPH treatment was associated with a lower risk of burn injury in a cumulative duration of treatment dose-related effect manner.
Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24 236 adults (mean (standard deviation) age: 40·7 (sd 11·9) years; 11 394 men (47·0 %)). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated FFQ. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19·0 %. Compared with those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted OR of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0·95 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·05) for those consuming 2–3 times/week and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week (Pfor trend = 0·01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex and BMI. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
Bismuth (Bi)-based photocatalytic materials are widely used in the field of photocatalytic degradation of wastewater. In this study, β-Bi2O3/BiOBr heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by an in situ chemical transformation method. BiOBr molecules are arrayed to cross each other to form a pore around β-Bi2O3. The prepared photocatalyst had a large specific surface area and excellent adsorption and photocatalytic properties. The β-Bi2O3/BiOBr with a molecular ratio of 11.1% had the highest catalytic activity. The result of a degradation experiment, performed with Rhodamine B (RhB) as the target pollutant, revealed that the degradation rate reached 99.85% after 25 min under visible light irradiation. The pore structure can adsorb contaminants and the heterojunction facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs to enhance the photocatalytic properties. The high adsorption performance and heterojunction achieved higher photocatalytic efficiency. This semiconductor photocatalyst with high adsorption performance provides a new approach to control water pollution.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
A kind of novel Ni–P gradient coating/stannate conversion film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy (AZ91D alloy) by an integrative method involved stannate conversion and electroless plating. The results indicated that using sodium hypophosphite concentrations varied as 5, 10, 22, 46, and 60 g/L in the bath, the electroless Ni–P gradient coating with typical cell morphologies was successfully prepared, and the structures transited from crystalline → microcrystalline → amorphous were obtained as increasing P content from 3.31 to 12.58 wt%. Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies, polarization curves, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy substrate was significantly improved and the corrosion resistance of Ni–P gradient coating was superior than that of stannate conversion film, which might be attributed to the gradient structure and rising P content with unique function.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
The etiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders has yet to be elucidated, so their differential diagnosis is a challenge. This is especially true in differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA).
A total of 11 eligible articles were identified by search of electronic databases including PubMed, Springer Link, Elsevier, and the Cochrane Library, up to June 2014. In meta-analyses, standardized mean differences (SMD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures of α-synuclein between the above conditions were calculated using random-effects models.
CSF α-synuclein concentrations were significantly higher in AD compared to DLB [SMD: 0.32, 95% CI: (0.02, 0.62), z = 2.07, P = 0.038]; PD [SMD: 0.87, 95% CI: (0.15, 1.58), z = 2.38, P = 0.017]; or MSA [SMD: 1.14, 95% CI: (0.15, 2.14), z = 2.25, P = 0.025]. However, no significant difference was found between patients with AD and neurological cognitively normal controls [SMD: 0.02, 95% CI: (−0.21, 0.24), z = 0.13, P = 0.894].
Results of these meta-analysis suggest that quantification of CSF α-synuclein could help distinguish AD from other neurodegenerative disorders such as DLB, PD, or MSA.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) dynamic path planning method is proposed to avoid not only static threats but also mobile threats. The path of a UAV is planned or modified by the potential trajectory of the mobile threat, which is predicted by its current position, velocity, and direction angle, because the positions of the UAV and mobile threat are dynamically changing. In each UAV planning path, the UAV incurs some costs, including control costs to change the direction angle, route costs to bypass the threats, and threat costs to acquire some probability to be destroyed by threats. The model predictive control (MPC) algorithm is used to determine the optimal or sub-optimal path with minimum overall costs. The MPC algorithm is a rolling-optimization feedback algorithm. It is used to plan the UAV path in several steps online instead of one-time offline to avoid sudden and mobile threats dynamically. Lastly, solution implementation is described along with several simulation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) single crystals are the only nonlinear crystals currently used for electro-optic switches and frequency converters in inertial confinement fusion research, due to their large dimension and exclusive physical properties. Based on the traditional solution-growth process, large bulk KDP crystals, usually with sizes up to 600
so as to make a frequency doubler for the facility requirement loading highly flux of power laser, can be grown in standard Holden-type crystallizers, without spontaneous nucleation and visible defects, one to two orders of magnitude faster than by conventional methods. Pure water and KDP raw material with a few ion impurities such as Fe, Cr, and Al (less than 0.1 ppm) were used. The rapid-growth method includes extreme conditions such as temperature range from 60 to 35
C, overcooling up to 5
C, growth rates exceeding 10 mm/day, and crystal size up to 600 mm. The optical parameters of KDP crystals were determined. The optical properties of crystals determined indicate that they are of favorable quality for application in the facility.
The statistical analysis of heating effect and the cross-correlation analysis of both electron temperature and loop voltage have been done during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The behavior of runaway electrons in the flat-top phase during ECRH are analyzed using experimental data. It is shown that the runaway population is indeed suppressed or even quenched when the toroidal electric field ET is reduced below the threshold electric field Eth by high-power and long-duration ECRH. The physical mechanism of runaway suppression is explored by the resonant interaction between the electron cyclotron waves and the energetic runaway electrons.
A rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting West Nile virus (WNV) was established. Primers were designed according to the sequence of the capsid protein gene of WNV by Primer Premier 5.0. In this way, an inexpensive assay using the intercalating dye SYBR Green I was developed and validated. The amplifying curve showed that this method could successfully amplify 102 copies/μl of the WNV gene, while reference to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and blank control were all negative. Tenfold successive dilutions of positive WNV DNA were used to measure the sensitivity of RT-PCR. The assay system showed high reproducibility with coefficient of variation (CV) <2%. Thus the newly established RT-PCR assay was shown to be a rapid, sensitive and specific test for detecting WNV.
22q11.2 microdeletion is the most common microdeletion in the global population. Congenital cardiac disease is the most frequently observed feature of this syndrome. The prognosis of patients with 22q11.2 copy number aberrations varies from those without 22q11.2 deletion or duplication.
We enrolled 241 patients from Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital and Nanjing Sick Children’s Hospital, 227 being scheduled for cardiac surgery, and 14 cases being fetuses aged from 24 to 36 gestational weeks. We performed karyotypic analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in all cases.
Karyotypic analysis demonstrated 3 cases with trisomy 21, and 1 case with mosaic trisomy 8 [47,XY,+8/46,XY(1:2)]. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis revealed 10 cases (4.15%) with changes in the number of copies within the region of 22q11.2, of which 7 cases were hemizygous interstitial microdeletion from CLTCL1 to LZTR1, 1 case with deletion of the region from CLTCL1 to PCQAP, and 2 cases with 22q11.2 duplication, one of which spanned from ZNF74 to LZTR1, and simultaneously showed trisomy 21 by karyotyping analysis, and the other spanned from HIC2 to TOP3B. The phenotypes of the cardiac lesions included 3 cases of ventricular septal defect, 3 of tetralogy of Fallot, 2 of combined ventricular and atrial septal defects, and 2 with pulmonary arterial stenosis.
Patients with congenitally malformed hearts who are scheduled for cardiac surgery, as well as fetuses with congenital cardiac disease, should routinely undergo karyotypic analysis and examination for 22q11.2 aberrations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification has been proven to be a cost-effective diagnostic technique for 22q11 deletion syndrome.
A simple analytic expression of the two-dimensional Child–Langmuir law is derived for non-zero injection velocities and Lau's result is obtained in our model by setting the injection velocity equal to zero. The calculation results show that the modify term in our model is larger than Lau's with a non-zero electronic initial energy, and it is twice as large as Lau's when the electronic initial energy is much greater than the potential energy of the gap.
The spotted longbarbel catfish (Mystus guttatus) is a member of the family Bagridae and is mainly distributed in the Pearl River Valley and Nandujiang River of Hainan Island. It is one of the four most famous fishes in the history of Pearl River Valley. Nowadays, M. guttatus has become a potential target for aquaculture in China due to its high nutritional value, but its genetic background is still unknown. This study was carried out to estimate its population genetic diversity in Pearl River. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was performed on 30 samples, using 20 random primers of length 10 nucleotides. The results showed that each primer amplified 3–9 bands per sample. Twenty primers produced 3210 well-amplified DNA fragments with reproducible band patterns and the average number of amplified DNA fragments reached 107 in each individual. Broadly speaking, 48 (44.9%) of 107 loci were polymorphic. Only the S30 primer did not produce polymorphic loci. The genetic distance of individuals ranged from 0.0467 to 0.2804. The average genetic distance among the 30 individuals was 0.1526±0.037. Genetic data in this study could be useful in genetic resource assessment as well as in wild population conservation and exploitation of M. guttatus in the future.
We studied seasonal variation in density and species richness of seeds in the 0–10 cm soil depth layer in primary, secondary and pine forests, and in shrubland and grassland in the Shilin Stone Forest Geographical Park, Yunnan, SW China. Soil samples were collected four times during the year at 3-month intervals. Seeds from 119 species were identified by germination tests in the soil samples. Density and species richness of seeds of herbaceous plants were greater than woody plants at all five sites throughout the year. Sampling time and site differences had significant effects on the mean number of species and on seed-bank density. Mean number of species per sample increased from February, reached the highest value in May, decreased to the lowest value in August and then increased in November. An exception was in the primary forest, where the highest number of species was found in February. Mean seed-bank density peaked in May at all five sites, and no significant differences were found between densities in February, November and August, except for the primary forest. The peak in seed-bank density in May might be due to dispersal of new seeds of spring-fruiting species, combined with persistence of seeds dispersed in previous years. This seasonal variation of individual species was due primarily to differences in species phenology rather than to differences between sites. Four seasonal seed-bank strategies were identified: two transient and two persistent. At all sites, similar numbers of seeds of herbaceous species were found between seasons, but the number of species of trees and shrubs decreased in August.
ZnO nanowires doped with Mn, Fe, Sn, and Li during the thermal growth following direct chemical synthesis were investigated using electric and magnetic measurements. Current-voltage characteristics of individual nanowires configured as a two-terminal device with Al electrodes show apparent rectify behavior indicating the Schottky-like barrier formation and resistivity being less 3 Ω·cm. Reproducible resistance modulation by a dc voltage at room temperature is observed. Magnetic susceptibility of the doped nanowires as a function of temperature demonstrates Curie–Weiss behavior. Magnetization versus field curves show hysteresis with the coercive field of about 200 Oe. The spatially-resolved magnetic force measurements of individual nanowires revealed the magnetic domain structure. The domains align perpendicular to c-axis and can be polarized in the external magnetic field.