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Maternal obesity and malnutrition during gestation and lactation have been recognized to increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in the offspring across their lifespan. However, the gestational period during which malnutrition exerts a decisive effect is unclear. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a critical role in energy metabolism owing to its high efficiency in oxidizing glucose and fatty acids. This study aimed to determine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption only during pregnancy on BAT and energy metabolism in offspring mice. Dams were fed an HFD or a normal chow diet from embryonic day 2.5. HFD consumption during pregnancy induced glucose intolerance and hypertension in dams. In the offspring of HFD-fed dams, maternal HFD lowered fetal weight without affecting placental weight, whereas HFD consumption after birth exacerbated oxygen consumption and cold-induced thermogenesis at 12 months of age, accompanied by increased lipid droplet size in BAT. These data demonstrate that HFD consumption only during pregnancy exerts a long-lasting effect on BAT. Collectively, these findings indicate the importance of nutrition during pregnancy with respect to the energy metabolism of the offspring, and pregnant women should thus ensure proper nutrition during pregnancy to ensure normal energy metabolism in the offspring.
We characterize the electron density distributions of preformed plasma for laser-accelerated proton generation. The preformed plasma of a titanium target 3 μm thick is generated by prepulse and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of a high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser and is measured with an interferometer using a second harmonic probe beam. High-energy protons are obtained by reducing the size of the preformed plasma by changing the ASE duration before main pulse at the front side (laser incidence side) of the target. Simulation results with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code are close to the experimental results for low-density region ~4 × 1019 cm−3 at the front side. In the high-density region near to the target surface, the interferometry underestimates the density due to the substantial refraction. The characterization of hydrodynamic expansion with the interferometer and simulation is a useful tool for investigation of high-energy proton generation.
We observed a preformed plasma of an aluminum slab target produced by a high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser. The expansion length of the preformed plasma at the electron density of 3 × 1018 cm−3, which was the detection limit, was around 100 μm measured with a laser interferometer. In order to characterize quantitatively and to control the preformed plasmas, we perform a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation. The expansion length of the preformed plasma was almost the same as the experimental result, if we assumed that the amplified spontaneous emission lasted 3.5 ns before the main pulse arrived.
High-energy protons are generated by focusing an ultrashort pulsed
high intensity laser at the Advanced Photon Research Center, JAERI-Kansai
onto thin (thickness <10 μm) Tantalum targets. The laser
intensities are about 4 × 1018 W/cm2. The
prepulse level of the laser pulse is measured with combination of a PIN
photo diode and a cross correlator and is less than 10−6.
A quarter-wave plate is installed into the laser beam line to create
circularly polarized pulses. Collimated high energy protons are observed
with CH coated Tantalum targets irradiated with the circularly polarized
laser pulses. The beam divergence of the generated proton beam is measured
with a CR-39 track detector and is about 6 mrad.
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