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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, chronic, and impairing disorder, yet presentations of ADHD and clinical course are highly heterogeneous. Despite substantial research efforts, both (a) the secondary co-occurrence of ADHD and complicating additional clinical problems and (b) the developmental pathways leading toward or away from recovery through adolescence remain poorly understood. Resolving these requires accounting for transactional influences of a large number of features across development. Here, we applied a longitudinal cross-lagged panel network model to a multimodal, multilevel dataset in a well-characterized sample of 488 children (nADHD = 296) to test Research Domain Criteria initiative-inspired hypotheses about transdiagnostic risk. Network features included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders symptoms, trait-based ratings of emotional functioning (temperament), and performance-based measures of cognition. Results confirmed that ADHD symptom domains, temperamental irritability, and working memory are independent transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology based on their direct associations with other features across time. ADHD symptoms and working memory each had direct, independent associations with depression. Results also demonstrated tightly linked co-development of ADHD symptoms and temperamental irritability, consistent with the possibility that this type of anger dysregulation is a core feature that is co-expressed as part of the ADHD phenotype for some children.
The elm zigzag sawfly, Aproceros leucopoda Takeuchi (Hymenoptera: Argidae), was reported for the first time in North America during the summer of 2020. Characteristic zigzag defoliation was reported in the province of Québec, Canada, on the community science website, iNaturalist. Field trips conducted to the site resulted in the collection of live specimens (a few larvae and a cocoon from which an adult emerged) and onsite observation of diagnostic defoliation and empty cocoons, confirming the presence of this exotic species in Canada. Subsequent inspection of elm trees by naturalists and scientists in the south of the province led to the conclusion that the species is more widely distributed than first expected and that the invasion is not localised to a small area. Preliminary genetic data pointed to a possible European origin of the Canadian population, but conclusive assignment to source will require examination of more specimens and the collection of reference sequences from different European and Asian populations. This is a good example of the importance of community science in the detection of new invasive species.
This study first examined the respective relations of resiliency and
reactive control with executive functioning. It then examined the
relationship of these different domains to the development of academic and
social outcomes, and to the emergence of internalizing and externalizing
problem behavior in adolescence. Resiliency and reactive control were
assessed from preschool to adolescence in a high-risk sample of boys and
girls (n = 498) and then linked to component operations of
neuropsychological executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition,
interference control, fluency, working memory/set-shifting, planning,
and alertness), assessed in early and late adolescence. Consistent, linear
relations were found between resiliency and executive functions (average
r = .17). A curvilinear relationship was observed between
reactive control and resiliency, such that resiliency was weaker when
reactive control was either very high or very low. In multivariate,
multilevel models, executive functions contributed to academic competence,
whereas resiliency and interference control jointly predicted social
competence. Low resiliency, low reactive control, and poor response
inhibition uniquely and additively predicted internalizing problem
behavior, whereas low reactive control and poor response inhibition
uniquely predicted externalizing problem behavior. Results are discussed
in relation to recent trait models of regulation and the scaffolded
development of competence and problems in childhood and adolescence.This work was supported by NIAAA Grant
R01-AA12217 to Robert Zucker and Joel Nigg, NIAAA Grant R37-AA07065 to
Robert Zucker and Hiram Fitzgerald, and NIMH Grant R01-MH59105 to Joel
Nigg. We are indebted to the families and staff who made the study
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