To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The post-Frederician Prussian army cultivated the glory of the past, but also experienced continuous debates and reforms intending to optimize the army according to the principles of enlightened rationalism. The confrontation with the French revolutionary armies activated intensive discussions, but for the military authorities, the experiences did not call for principal doubts about the suitability of the army. The defeat of 1806, however, did. The following reforms had to handle elementary needs to re-establish the armed forces, but also took the opportunity to create new organisational frameworks and to introduce new principles for recruitment, military justice and officers’ careers. From a quantitative perspective, the important measures converged on the implementation of a general conscription, and from a qualitative perspective, they especially targeted reconciling the educated middle-class with military service. When the break with France in 1813 effaced the previously existing restrictions, the plans resulted not only in an augmentation of the standing army, but in the establishment of complementary military formations of own characters. Their coexistence reflected organisational constraints, as well as different aspects of the previous debates. Although not without improvisations, the authorities were able to increase the armed forces more than sevenfold within about nine months.
The second half of the seventeenth century saw significant changes in the structures of the most important military organizations on the European continent. Collectively, these changes are commonly labelled as the introduction of standing armies. These changes certainly had a deep impact on the terms as well as the conditions of military labour. However, it needs to be discussed whether these developments should be understood as a categorical transformation, putting military labour in a typological framework of its own, or whether it would be more appropriate to stress the aspects of continuity and to embed these aspects of change in a more evolutionary interpretative framework. This chapter will argue that several changes of particular importance altered the face of military labour so that it hardly could be equated with the classical era of mercenaries in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Nevertheless, the components were still tied to various traditions and did not constitute a completely innovative system that could be compared with the later transformations initiated by the French Revolution – though even the revolutionaries, of course, could not avoid being based on existing forms of military institutions.
In accordance with the objectives of the Fighting for a Living project, this chapter will initially outline the current state of research. Particular attention will be given to the modes of recruitment, which not only can be considered crucial criteria for categorizing the type of military labour but which also developed significant variations during the era under discussion here. The second part of the chapter will discuss and reassess the empirical findings in the framework of some more general categories related to the typology and dynamics of military labour.
The most obvious expression of these changes was not inevitably connected with the principles of standing armies and consisted simply of significant growth in the size of many armies. At the forefront of these developments was the French army, which established new levels for the military strength of a leading power within the European concert. Some figures will illustrate the extent of growth. Of course, it is impossible to determine exact numbers; due to the lack of sources as well as discrepancies between normative prescriptions, a limited range of records, and the presumed reality, the numbers are the result of more or less rough estimates and ongoing discussions.
The imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) encodes a fetal mitogenic hormone protein (IGF-II) and has previously been shown to be associated with performance in dairy cattle. In this study we assessed genotype-phenotype associations between four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the bovine IGF2 locus on chromosome 29 and a range of performance traits related to milk production, animal growth and body size, fertility and progeny survival in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian sires. Two of the four SNPs (rs42196909 and IGF2.g-3815A>G), which were in strong linkage disequilibrium (r2=0·995), were associated with milk yield (P⩽0·01) and milk protein yield (P⩽0·05); the rs42196901 SNP was also associated (P⩽0·05) with milk fat yield. Associations (P⩽0·05) with milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage were observed at the rs42196901 and IGF2.g-3815A>G SNPs, respectively. The rs42196909 and IGF2.g-3815A>G SNPs were also associated with progeny carcass conformation (P⩽0·05), while an association (P⩽0·01) with progeny carcass weight was observed at the rs42194733 SNP locus. None of the four SNPs were associated with body size, fertility and progeny survival. These findings support previous work which suggests that the IGF2 locus is an important biological regulator of milk production in dairy cattle and add to an accumulating body of research showing that imprinted genes influence many complex performance traits in cattle.
The temporal dynamics of the response of neurons in the outer retina were investigated by intracellular recording from cones, bipolar, and horizontal cells in the intact, light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), with special emphasis on comparing the two major classes of bipolars cells, the ON depolarizing bipolars (Bd) and the OFF hyperpolarizing bipolars (Bh). Transfer functions were computed from impulse responses evoked by a brief light flash on a steady background of 20 cd/m2. Phase delays ranged from about 89 ms for cones to 170 ms for Bd cells, yielding delays relative to that of cones of about 49 ms for Bh cells and 81 ms for Bd cells. The difference between Bd and Bh cells, which may be due to a delay introduced by the second messenger G-protein pathway unique to Bd cells, was further quantified by latency measurements and responses to white noise. The amplitude transfer functions of the outer retinal neurons varied with light adaptation in qualitative agreement with results for other vertebrates and human vision. The transfer functions at 20 cd/m2 were predominantly low pass with 10-fold attenuation at about 13, 14, 9.1, and 7.7 Hz for cones, horizontal, Bh, and Bd cells, respectively. The transfer function from the cone voltage to the bipolar voltage response, as computed from the above measurements, was low pass and approximated by a cascade of three low pass RC filters (“leaky integrators”). These results for cone→bipolar transmission are surprisingly similar to recent results for rod→bipolar transmission in salamander slice preparations. These and other findings suggest that the rate of vesicle replenishment rather than the rate of release may be a common factor shaping synaptic signal transmission from rods and cones to bipolar cells.
Intracellular recordings were obtained from 57 cone-driven bipolar
cells in the light-adapted retina of the land-phase (adult) tiger
salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Responses to flashes of negative
and positive contrast for centered spots of optimum spatial dimensions
were analyzed as a function of contrast magnitude. On average, the
contrast/response curves of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing bipolar
cells in the land-phase animals were remarkably similar to those
of aquatic-phase animals. Thus, the primary retinal mechanisms
mediating contrast coding in the outer retina are conserved as the
salamander evolves from the aquatic to the land phase. To evaluate
contrast encoding in the context of natural environments, the distribution
of contrasts in natural images was measured for 65 scenes. The results, in
general agreement with other reports, show that the vast majority of
contrasts in nature are very small. The efficient coding hypothesis of
Laughlin was examined by comparing the average contrast/response
curves of bipolar cells with the cumulative probability distribution of
contrasts in natural images. Efficient coding was found at 20
cd/m2 but at lower levels of light adaptation, the
contrast/response curves were much too shallow. Further experiments
show that two fundamental physiological factors—light adaptation and
the nonlinear transfer across the cone-bipolar synapse are essential for
the emergence of efficient contrast coding. For both land- and
aquatic-based animals, the extent and symmetry of the dynamic range of the
contrast/response curves of both classes of bipolar cells varied
greatly from cell to cell. This apparent substrate for distributed
encoding is established at the bipolar cell level, since it is not found
in cones. As a result, the dynamic range of the bipolar cell population
brackets the distribution of contrasts found in natural images.
Contrast encoding for sinusoidal modulations of luminance contrast
was investigated by intracellular recording in the intact salamander
retina. In what appears to be the first study of this kind for
vertebrate bipolar cells, responses of the central receptive-field
mechanism of cone-driven cells to modulation of 3 Hz were analyzed
quantitatively via both signal averaging and a Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT) while the retina was light adapted to 20
cd/m2. Depolarizing and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells
showed very similar encoding. Both responded with sinusoidal waveforms
whose amplitude varied linearly with modulation depths ranging up to
7–8%. The slope of the modulation/response curve was very
steep in this range. Thus, the contrast gain was high, reaching values
of 6–7, and the half-maximal response was achieved at modulations
of 9% or less. At modulations above ∼15%, the responses typically
showed strong compressive nonlinearity and the waveform was
increasingly distorted. At maximum modulation, the higher harmonics of
the FFT constituted about 30% of the amplitude of the fundamental.
Measurements were also made for cones and horizontal cells. Both cell
types showed predominantly linear responses and low contrast gain, in
marked contrast to bipolar cells. These results suggest that the high
contrast gain and strong nonlinearity of bipolar cells largely arise
postsynaptic to cone transmitter release. Further experiments were
performed to compare responses to contrast steps versus those to
sinusoidal modulation. In the linear range, we show that the contrast
gains of cones and horizontal cells are low and virtually identical for
both steps and sinusoidal modulations. In bipolar cells, on the other
hand, the contrast gain is about two times greater for steps than that
for the 3-Hz sine waves. These results suggest that mechanisms
intrinsic to bipolar cells act like a high-pass filter with a short
time constant to selectively emphasize contrast transients over slower
changes in contrast.
The impulse discharge of single ganglion cells
was recorded extracellularly in superfused eyecup preparations
of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).
Contrast flashes (500 ms) were applied at the center of
the receptive field while the retina was light adapted
to a background field of 20 cd/m2. The incidence
of cell types in a sample of 387 cells was: ON cells (4%),
OFF cells (28%), and ON/OFF cells (68%). Quantitative contrast/response
measurements were obtained for 83 cells. On the basis of
C50, the contrast necessary to evoke a half-maximal response,
ON/OFF cells fell into 3 groups: (1) Positive Dominant
(26%), (2) Balanced (23%), and (3) Negative Dominant (51%).
Positive Dominant cells tended to be relatively contrast
insensitive. On the other hand, many Negative Dominant
cells showed remarkably low C50 values and very steep contrast/response
curves. Contrast gain to negative contrast averaged 8.5
impulses/s/% contrast, some four times greater than that
evoked by positive contrast. In most ON/OFF cells, the
latency of the first spike evoked by a negative contrast
step was much shorter (40–100 ms) than that evoked
by a positive contrast step of equal contrast. OFF cells
typically showed higher C50 values, larger dynamic ranges,
and longer latencies than those of Negative Dominant ON/OFF
cells. Thus, different pathways or mechanism apparently
mediate the off responses of OFF and ON/OFF cells. In sum,
the light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander is strongly
biased in favor of negative contrast, as shown by the remarkably
high contrast sensitivity and faster response of Negative
Dominant cells, the remarkably low incidence of ON cells,
and the insensitivity of Positive Dominant cells. Some
possible underlying influences of bipolar and amacrine
cells are discussed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.