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Since the initial publication of A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals in 2008, the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has continued to be a national priority. Progress in healthcare epidemiology, infection prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, and implementation science research has led to improvements in our understanding of effective strategies for HAI prevention. Despite these advances, HAIs continue to affect ∼1 of every 31 hospitalized patients,1 leading to substantial morbidity, mortality, and excess healthcare expenditures,1 and persistent gaps remain between what is recommended and what is practiced.
The widespread impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on HAI outcomes2 in acute-care hospitals has further highlighted the essential role of infection prevention programs and the critical importance of prioritizing efforts that can be sustained even in the face of resource requirements from COVID-19 and future infectious diseases crises.3
The Compendium: 2022 Updates document provides acute-care hospitals with up-to-date, practical expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing HAI prevention efforts. It is the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), the American Hospital Association (AHA), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), the Surgical Infection Society (SIS), and others.
We have developed the bispectral electroencephalography (BSEEG) method for detection of delirium and prediction of poor outcomes.
To improve the BSEEG method by introducing a new EEG device.
In a prospective cohort study, EEG data were obtained and BSEEG scores were calculated. BSEEG scores were filtered on the basis of standard deviation (s.d.) values to exclude signals with high noise. Both non-filtered and s.d.-filtered BSEEG scores were analysed. BSEEG scores were compared with the results of three delirium screening scales: the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS) and the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS). Additionally, the 365-day mortalities and the length of stay (LOS) in the hospital were analysed.
We enrolled 279 elderly participants and obtained 620 BSEEG recordings; 142 participants were categorised as BSEEG-positive, reflecting slower EEG activity. BSEEG scores were higher in the CAM-ICU-positive group than in the CAM-ICU-negative group. There were significant correlations between BSEEG scores and scores on the DRS and the DOSS. The mortality rate of the BSEEG-positive group was significantly higher than that of the BSEEG-negative group. The LOS of the BSEEG-positive group was longer compared with that of the BSEEG-negative group. BSEEG scores after s.d. filtering showed stronger correlations with delirium screening scores and more significant prediction of mortality.
We confirmed the usefulness of the BSEEG method for detection of delirium and of delirium severity, and prediction of patient outcomes with a new EEG device.
To assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with mental and physical health issues among college students.
An online survey was administered. Food insecurity was assessed using the ten-item Adult Food Security Survey Module. Sleep was measured using the nineteen-item Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mental health and physical health were measured using three items from the Healthy Days Core Module. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with poor mental and physical health.
Twenty-two higher education institutions.
College students (n 17 686) enrolled at one of twenty-two participating universities.
Compared with food-secure students, those classified as food insecure (43·4 %) had higher PSQI scores indicating poorer sleep quality (P < 0·0001) and reported more days with poor mental (P < 0·0001) and physical (P < 0·0001) health as well as days when mental and physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (P < 0·0001). Food-insecure students had higher adjusted odds of having poor sleep quality (adjusted OR (AOR): 1·13; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·14), days with poor physical health (AOR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), days with poor mental health (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·03) and days when poor mental or physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·04).
College students report high food insecurity which is associated with poor mental and physical health, and sleep quality. Multi-level policy changes and campus wellness programmes are needed to prevent food insecurity and improve student health-related outcomes.
To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) bacteriuria and to determine whether urinary catheters increase the risk of subsequent CRE bacteremia.
Using active population- and laboratory-based surveillance we described a cohort of patients with incident CRE bacteriuria and identified risk factors for developing CRE bacteremia within 1 year.
The study was conducted among the 8 counties of Georgia Health District 3 (HD3) in Atlanta, Georgia.
Residents of HD3 with CRE first identified in urine between 2012 and 2017.
We identified 464 patients with CRE bacteriuria (mean yearly incidence, 1.96 cases per 100,000 population). Of 425 with chart review, most had a urinary catheter (56%), and many resided in long-term care facilities (48%), had a Charlson comorbidity index >3 (38%) or a decubitus ulcer (37%). 21 patients (5%) developed CRE bacteremia with the same organism within 1 year. Risk factors for subsequent bacteremia included presence of a urinary catheter (odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–34.9), central venous catheter (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.7–10.6) or another indwelling device (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6–11.4), urine culture obtained as an inpatient (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.3–25.9), and being in the ICU in the week prior to urine culture (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1–7.8). In a multivariable analysis, urinary catheter increased the risk of CRE bacteremia (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.2–23.6).
In patients with CRE bacteriuria, urinary catheters increase the risk of CRE bacteremia. Future interventions should aim to reduce inappropriate insertion and early removal of urinary catheters.
Emerging evidence suggests that parents’ nutritional status before and at the time of conception influences the lifelong physical and mental health of their child. Yet little is known about the relationship between diet in adolescence and the health of the next generation at birth. This study examined data from Norwegian cohorts to assess the relationship between dietary patterns in adolescence and neonatal outcomes. Data from adolescents who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT) were merged with birth data for their offspring through the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Young-HUNT1 collected data from 8980 adolescents between 1995 and 1997. Linear regression was used to assess associations between adolescents’ diet and later neonatal outcomes of their offspring adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Analyses were replicated with data from the Young-HUNT3 cohort (dietary data collected from 2006 to 2008) and combined with Young-HUNT1 for pooled analyses. In Young-HUNT1, there was evidence of associations between dietary choices, meal patterns, and neonatal outcomes, these were similar in the pooled analyses but were attenuated to the point of nonsignificance in the smaller Young-HUNT3 cohort. Overall, energy-dense food products were associated with a small detrimental impact on some neonatal outcomes, whereas healthier food choices appeared protective. Our study suggests that there are causal links between consumption of healthy and unhealthy food and meal patterns in adolescence with neonatal outcomes for offspring some years later. The effects seen are small and will require even larger studies with more state-of-the-art dietary assessment to estimate these robustly.
To determine the effect of an electronic medical record (EMR) nudge at reducing total and inappropriate orders testing for hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI).
An interrupted time series analysis of HO-CDI orders 2 years before and 2 years after the implementation of an EMR intervention designed to reduce inappropriate HO-CDI testing. Orders for C. difficile testing were considered inappropriate if the patient had received a laxative or stool softener in the previous 24 hours.
Four hospitals in an academic healthcare network.
All patients with a C. difficile order after hospital day 3.
Orders for C. difficile testing in patients administered a laxative or stool softener in <24 hours triggered an EMR alert defaulting to cancellation of the order (“nudge”).
Of the 17,694 HO-CDI orders, 7% were inappropriate (8% prentervention vs 6% postintervention; P < .001). Monthly HO-CDI orders decreased by 21% postintervention (level-change rate ratio [RR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–0.86), and the rate continued to decrease (postintervention trend change RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–1.00). The intervention was not associated with a level change in inappropriate HO-CDI orders (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.61–1.05), but the postintervention inappropriate order rate decreased over time (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93–0.97).
An EMR nudge to minimize inappropriate ordering for C. difficile was effective at reducing HO-CDI orders, and likely contributed to decreasing the inappropriate HO-CDI order rate after the intervention.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Sediments of Balsam Meadow have produced a 11,000-yr pollen record from the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Balsam Meadow diagram is divided into three zones. (1) The Artemisia zone (11,000–7000 yr B.P.) is characterized by percentages of sagebrush (Artemisia) and other nonarboreal pollen higher than can be found in the modern local vegetation. Vegetation during this interval was probably similar to the modern vegetation on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada and the climate was drier than that of today. (2) Pinus pollen exceeded 80% from 7000 to 3000 yr B.P. in the Pinus zone. The climate was moister than during the Artemisia zone. (3) Fir (Abies, Cupressaceae, and oak (Quercus) percentages increased after 3000 yr B.P. in the Abies zone as the modern vegetation at the site developed and the present cool-moist climatic regime was established. Decreased fire frequency after 1200 yr B.P. is reflected in decreased abundance of macroscopic charcoal and increased concentration of Abies magnifica and Pinus murrayana needles.