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The purpose of this study was to examine how a specific informant-based measure of everyday functioning, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE; Jorm & Korten, 1988) relates to cognition and structural neuroimaging in a large multicultural, multilingual sample of Caucasians and Hispanics. Cognitive variables included selected subtests from the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS; Mungas et al., 2000): Verbal Memory, Object Naming, Verbal Attention Span, Verbal Conceptual Thinking, and Pattern Recognition. The association between the IQCODE and selected neuroimaging variables, hippocampal volume and white matter hyperintensity, was evaluated in a subsample of English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic individuals. The cognitive variables showed strong bivariate relationships with the IQCODE, although only Verbal Memory and Object Naming independently predicted level of functional ability. Verbal Memory was the strongest predictor of functional status, accounting for 23% of the variance in the IQCODE. White matter hyperintensity was also independently related to the IQCODE, accounting for 18% of the variance. Hippocampal volume was related to the IQCODE in a simple bivariate analysis, but was not an independent predictor of reported functional status after controlling for age. The relationships between cognitive variables and functional status, as well as between the imaging variables and the IQCODE, did not differ across language-ethnic groups. (JINS, 2004, 10, 342–354.)
We sought to identify magnetic resonance- (MR)-imaged structures associated with declarative memory in a community-dwelling sample of elderly Mexican–American individuals with a spectrum of cognitive decline. Measured structures were the hemispheric volumes of the hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus, and remaining temporal lobes, as well as severity of white matter signal hyperintensities (WMH). Participants were an imaged subsample from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA), N = 122. Individuals were categorized as normal, memory impaired (MI), cognitively impaired non-demented (CIND), or demented. We show that WMH was the strongest structural predictor for performance on a delayed free-recall task (episodic memory) in the entire sample. The association of WMH with delayed recall was most prominent in elderly normals and mildly cognitively impaired individuals with no dementia or impairment of daily function. However, the left HC was associated with verbal delayed recall only in people with dementia. The right HC volume predicted nonverbal semantic-memory performance. We conclude that WMH are an important pathological substrate that affects certain memory functions in normal individuals and those with mild memory loss and discuss how tasks associated with WMH may rely upon frontal lobe function. (JINS, 2004, 10, 371–381.)
Word-list verbal learning and memory tests with appropriate normative data can be highly sensitive to cognitive decline, but there are significant limitations of such tests available for use with older Hispanic and non-Hispanic people living in the US. The purpose of this study was to (1) create a new word-list learning and memory test in both English and Spanish and, (2) validate it with respect to sensitivity to cognitive impairment, and (3) develop statistical corrections for the effects of significant demographic variables, including ethnicity, language of administration, age, education, and gender. A community dwelling sample of 801 English- and Spanish-speaking older people was employed. Recall on learning trials and the delayed recall trial of the word-list learning test were strongly related to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), moderately related to age, and weakly related to gender and education. The relationship of word-list variables and the MMSE did not significantly differ across ethnicity/language groups. Regression coefficients for demographic variables were used in a statistical correction formula to adjust raw word-list scores, and then to develop specific percentile cut-off values. (JINS, 2001, 7, 544–555.)
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