A molecular phylogeographic study of Paragonimus mexicanus collected from Guatemala and Ecuador was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from individual metacercariae, and two gene regions (partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and the second internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal gene repeat (ITS2)) were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequences segregated in a phylogenetic tree according to their geographic origins. ITS2 sequences from Ecuador and Guatemala differed at only one site. Pairwise distances among CO1 sequences within a country were always lower than between countries. Nevertheless, genetic distances between countries were less than between geographical forms of P. westermani that have been suggested to be distinct species. This result suggests that populations from Guatemala and Ecuador are genetically differentiated perhaps at the level of subspecies.