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Steinernema populi n. sp. was recovered by baiting from beneath poplar trees in China. Morphological and molecular features provided evidence for placing the new species into the Kushidai clade. The new species is characterized by the following morphological features: third-stage infective juveniles (IJ) with a body length of 1095 (973–1172) μm, a distance from the anterior end to excretory pore of 77 (70–86) μm and a tail length of 64 (55–72) μm. The Body length/Tail length (c) ratio and Anterior end to Excretory pore/ Tail length × 100 (E%) of S. populi n. sp. are substantially greater than those of all other ‘Feltiae–Kushidai–Monticolum’ group members. The first-generation males can be recognized by a spicule length of 66 (57–77) μm and a gubernaculum length of 46 (38–60) μm. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show that Steinernema akhursti and Steinernema kushidai are the closest relatives to S. populi n. sp.
The parasite Cyathostomum pateratum, which occurs in the large intestine of equines, is a common species of the subfamily Cyathostominae. Cyathostominae nematodes are a complex nematode group for which only limited genetic information has been reported. To re-examine the phylogenetic relationships among Cyathostominae nematodes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cy. pateratum and compared it with the mt genome of the congeneric species Cyathostomum catinatum. The complete mtDNA sequence of Cy. pateratum was 13,822 bp in length, 16 bp shorter than that of Cy. catinatum. The mtDNA sequences of both species contained 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes, and all 36 genes were transcribed in the same direction and in the same strand. Pairwise comparisons of the 12 predicted amino acid sequences between Cy. catinatum and Cy. pateratum revealed differences of 0.4–3.1%; the least conserved sequence was that of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (cox3). Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequences using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods showed that Cy. catinatum and Cy. pateratum clustered together with very high nodal support, and Cylicostephanus goldi was closer to the Cyathostomum nematodes than to other Cyathostominae nematodes. The mtDNA sequence of Cy. pateratum is reported here for the first time. The study will shed some light on the genetic evolution among parasitic nematodes in Cyathostomum.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 18.104.22.168) are a family of super enzymes with multiple functions that play a major role in the detoxification of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In our previous study, we have predicted 23 putative cytosolic GSTs in the silkworm genome using bioinformatic methods. In this study, we cloned and studied the insect-specific epsilon-class GST gene GSTe4 from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The recombinant BmGSTe4 (Bac-BmGSTe4) was overexpressed in SF-9 cell lines, and it was found to have effective GST activity. We also found that the expression of BmGSTe4 was especially down-regulated after the silkworms were fumigated with or ingested phoxim. Moreover, BmGSTe4 protected HEK293 cells against UV-induced cell apoptosis. These results demonstrated that BmGSTe4 has GST activity, is sensitive to phoxim, and plays a role in inhibition of UV-induced cell apoptosis.
The scaling of the flux and maximum energy of laser-driven sheath-accelerated protons has been investigated as a function of laser pulse energy in the range of 15–380 mJ at intensities of 1016–1018 W/cm2. The pulse duration and target thickness were fixed at 40 fs and 25 nm, respectively, while the laser focal spot size and drive energy were varied. Our results indicate that while the maximum proton energy is dependent on the laser energy and laser spot diameter, the proton flux is primarily related to the laser pulse energy under the conditions studied here. Our measurements show that increasing the laser energy by an order of magnitude results in a more than 500-fold increase in the observed proton flux. Whereas, an order of magnitude increase in the laser intensity generated by decreasing the laser focal spot size, at constant laser energy, gives rise to less than a tenfold increase in observed proton flux.
The interfacial magnetoelectric (ME) effect in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric (FM-FE) tunneling junctions was investigated in this work. We found that the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) changes with the reversing of the electric polarization of the FE barrier. The theoretical results also indicated that TMR is strongly dependent on the electric polarization, the exchange splitting energy, the screening lengths in the electrodes, and the dielectric constant of the FE barrier layer. These results may provide some insights into switching magnetization electrically for spintronics and presenting independent tunneling states in a single junction for multi-value storage memory applications.
In this article, we investigate the effects of foam target composition and laser parameters on deuterium ion energy spectra with particle-in-cell simulations. We find that localized electrostatic fields with multi peaks around the surfaces of lamellar layers inside foam target are induced. These fields accelerate deuterium ions from thin foam layers by restricting the flow of hot electrons. This mechanism of ion acceleration called as bulk ion acceleration generates large number of high energy deuterium ions. Deuterons inside foam target are accelerated up to 126 MeV in case of oblique optimal angle of 30° where it is much greater than the normal laser incidence energy of 88 MeV.
Nanoscale gated quantum wires in GaAs MODFET material with the conduction channel and gates in the plane of the 2DEG have been fabricated and studied. Electron beam lithography was used for mask definition followed by flood exposure to low energy argon ions (150 eV) for pattern transfer into the 2DEG. Compared to metal top-gate designs the in-plane design simplifies fabrication and reduces device capacitance, promising ultra-fast operation. This method of pattern transfer produced devices having channel-to-gate isolation of 1014 Ω and breakdown fields above 106 V/cm at 4.2 K. In addition to exhibiting standard FET characteristics, including gating to pinchoff, the devices showed significant negative differential resistance (NDR) in the saturation region.
An apparatus design is described. It is for detecting VHE gamma ray point sources by means of the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. Obviously, the improvement of flux sensitivity and discrimination between gamma ray and isotropic proton showers is still a key problem. Of course, it is necessary to set up more observatories and to track an object continuously with several facilities. With this in mind, we decided to develop an experiment for observing VHE gamma ray sources in China. As a first step, we will set up an apparatus which consists of three 1.5 m diameter searchlight morrors at Xinglong station of Beijing Observatory, Xinglong county, Hebei province (40°. 4N, 117°.5E, altitude 940 m). The observation will start in 1988. Then, the second apparatus will be set up at Delingha station of Purple Mountain Observatory, Delingha county, Qinghai porvince (37°.22N, altitude 3204 m). Both the sites are far from air and light pollution, and have suitable meteological condition for Cerenkov light detection as well as quite convenient facilities for transportation. Some probable technical improvements are also discussed in this paper.
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