From about 1910 till the mid 1950s, medical sexology has mainly been practiced by psychiatrists. Although many psychiatrists used a psychoanalytic approach, particularly the psychiatrists at the “ Institut fur Sexual Wissenschaft” in Berlin introduced a biological, e.g. endocrinological, approach to treat sexual dysfunctions. However, this famous Institute was destroyed by the Nazis in 1933 and this marked the end of a very fruitful biological period in medical sexology. After World War II, sexology became more and more investigated and practiced by psychologists who at the time claimed successes of a behavioristic approach. Gradually, psychiatrists lost their interest in sexology. Currently, and internationally, sexology is not any more an important part of psychiatry. Since the 1990s, but particularly after the introduction of Viagra in 1998, sexology has become a major part of urology. The current state of sexology being practiced mainly by psychologists and urologists may be harmful for a balanced development of medical sexology.
Progress in the field of sexual neuropsychopharmacology has shown that sexual functioning is related to brain functioning. This means that there is a new role for (neuro)psychiatry in sexual medicine. Psychiatrists, who more than psychologists and urologists are better equipped to deal with psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, should take part in the new scientific developments, both with regard to drug treatment as in psychotherapy of sexual disorders.