The rate of zygotes in vitro developed to hatched blastocyst stage was evaluated between two different commercial media (TCM-199 and Ham's F10) and two different culture systems (renewal and non-renewal single medium) to determine the effects of culture conditions on rabbit embryo preimplantation development. The relative transcript abundances of OCT4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (erbB3) of resultant blastocysts were also analysed and compared with in vivo developed blastocysts. Results showed an important divergence in mRNA expression between embryos developed under in vivo and in vitro conditions despite there being no significant difference in hatching blastocyst rates between different culture systems and different media. For OCT4, transcript abundance of in vitro culture embryos differs from their in vivo chronological counterparts, but, when the medium is renewed, mRNA expression seemed similar to in vivo developed 4-day-old embryos. In addition, VEGF and erbB3 expression showed marked variation between different in vitro conditions. Therefore, the study of specific transcript abundance in rabbit blastocyst provides a more detailed description of which alterations in gene expression occur due in vitro conditions, and further studies should be carried out to reduce current limitations of long-term culture of rabbit pre-implantation embryos.