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To determine the association between food insecurity and HIV infection with depression and anxiety among new tuberculosis (TB) patients.
Our cross-sectional study assessed depression, anxiety and food insecurity with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Zung Anxiety Self-Assessment Scale (ZUNG) and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, respectively. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine correlates of depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and anxiety (ZUNG ≥ 36).
Patients who were newly diagnosed with TB.
Between January and December 2019, we enrolled 180 TB patients from primary health clinics in Botswana. Overall, 99 (55·0 %) were HIV positive, 47 (26·1 %), 85 (47·2 %) and 69 (38·5 %) indicated depression, anxiety and moderate to severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, food insecurity was associated with a higher prevalence of depression (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2·30; 95 % CI 1·40, 3·78) and anxiety (aPR = 1·41; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·91). Prevalence of depression and anxiety was similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants. Estimates remained comparable when restricted to HIV-infected participants.
Mental disorders may be affected by food insecurity among new TB patients, regardless of HIV status.
To utilise a community-based participatory approach in the design and implementation of an intervention targeting diet-related health problems on Navajo Nation.
A dual strategy approach of community needs/assets assessment and engagement of cross-sectorial partners in programme design with systematic cyclical feedback for programme modifications.
Navajo Nation, USA.
Navajo families with individuals meeting criteria for programme enrolment. Participant enrolment increased with iterative cycles.
The Navajo Fruit and Vegetable Prescription (FVRx) Programme.
A broad, community-driven and culturally relevant programme design has resulted in a programme able to maintain core programmatic principles, while also allowing for flexible adaptation to changing needs.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of risk alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms is associated with differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography in a Korean sample of ADHD.
The present study included 24 children with ADHD (9.5±2.4 years), consisting of 20 boys and 4 girls, aged 6-16 years. We investigated the G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms of the SLC6A2. The rCBF was compared between the ADHD subjects with and without risk alleles at the G1287A polymorphism and at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism. Image analyses were performed with voxelwise t-statistics using SPM2.
1) The ADHD subjects with the A allele (risk allele) at the G1287A polymorphism showed reduced perfusion in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
2) The ADHD subjects with the A allele at the G1287A polymorphism showed increased perfusion in the right middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right anterior lobe of cerebellum as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
3) No significant perfusion differences were found between ADHD subjects with and without the T allele (risk allele) at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism.
Our findings suggest that the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism might exert differential effects on rCBF in children with ADHD.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
Navajo Nation residents experience extreme rates of poverty, food insecurity and diet-related diseases. While many residents travel far to shop at grocery stores, there are small stores closer to home that could provide more healthy options, like fruits and vegetables (F&V). Little is known from the perspective of store owners and managers regarding the barriers and facilitators to offering F&V; the present study contributes to filling that gap.
Data were collected through structured interviews from a sampling frame of all store owners or managers in the setting (n 29).
Small stores in Navajo Nation, New Mexico, USA. Navajo Nation is predominantly rural and the largest federally recognized Native American tribe in the USA.
Sixteen managers and six owners at twenty-two stores.
When asked about the types of foods that were most commonly purchased at their stores, most participants reported snacks and drinks (82 and 68 %, respectively). Many participants reported they would like to offer more fresh F&V. However, barriers included varying perceived customer demand, limited F&V choices from distributors and (for some managers) limited authority over product selection.
Findings contribute to the discussion on engaging store owners and managers in providing quality, healthy foods close to home in low-income, rural regions.
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary benign brain tumors in adults. Given the extended life expectancy of most meningiomas, consideration of quality of life (QOL) is important when selecting the optimal management strategy. There is currently a dearth of meningioma-specific QOL tools in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we analyze the prevailing themes and propose toward building a meningioma-specific QOL assessment tool. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted, and only original studies based on adult patients were considered. QOL tools used in the various studies were analyzed for identification of prevailing themes in the qualitative analysis. The quality of the studies was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen articles met all inclusion criteria. Fifteen different QOL assessment tools assessed social and physical functioning, psychological, and emotional well-being. Patient perceptions and support networks had a major impact on QOL scores. Surgery negatively affected social functioning in younger patients, while radiation therapy had a variable impact. Any intervention appeared to have a greater negative impact on physical functioning compared to observation. CONCLUSION: Younger patients with meningiomas appear to be more vulnerable within social and physical functioning domains. All of these findings must be interpreted with great caution due to great clinical heterogeneity, limited generalizability, and risk of bias. For meningioma patients, the ideal QOL questionnaire would present outcomes that can be easily measured, presented, and compared across studies. Existing scales can be the foundation upon which a comprehensive, standard, and simple meningioma-specific survey can be prospectively developed and validated.
Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD.
In this case–control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement.
Diminished activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery was observed in the individuals with PTSD, relative to other groups.
Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery may be an acquired characteristic of PTSD. If replicated, this finding could be used prospectively to inform diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
This literature review analysed facial nerve management strategies in jugular paraganglioma surgery and discusses the tumour resection rate and the facial nerve outcome associated with each technique.
A retrospective review of PubMed and Medline articles on the surgical treatments for jugular paraganglioma was performed. Tumour resection rates and post-operative facial nerve function after non-rerouting, short anterior rerouting and long anterior rerouting approaches were evaluated for each article.
A total of 15 studies involving a total of 688 patients were included. Post-operative facial nerve function was similar after non-rerouting and short anterior rerouting approaches (p = 0.169); however, both of these techniques had significantly better post-operative facial nerve outcomes compared with long anterior rerouting (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The total tumour removal rate was significantly higher for long anterior rerouting than with the non-rerouting approach (p = 0.016). There was no difference in total tumour removal rate between the long and short anterior rerouting approaches (p = 0.067) and between the short anterior rerouting and non-rerouting approaches (p = 0.867).
No strict guidelines for facial nerve management in jugular paraganglioma resection are available. Although long anterior rerouting provides the best tumour exposure along with a low morbidity rate, case-by-case selection of the surgical approach is recommended.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
In this study, we aim to trace formation of the primordial globular cluster, ultra faint dwarf galaxy, and ultra compact dwarf in a cosmological context of a high-resolution hydrodynamic zoom-in simulation. We show that the baryon-dominated systems have experienced more interactions with the mini halos before infalling to the main halo.
Depression is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with adverse effects on prognosis. There is little evidence on whether depression treatment improves quality of life (QoL) in ACS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of co-morbid depression and its treatment on QoL in ACS.
In total, 1152 patients were recruited at baseline, 2–14 weeks after a confirmed ACS episode, and 828 were followed 1 year thereafter. Of 446 baseline participants with co-morbid depressive disorders, 300 were randomized to a 24-week double blind trial of escitalopram or placebo, while the remaining 146 received medical treatment only (MTO). QoL was measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life –Abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF).
At baseline, QoL was significantly lower in patients with co-morbid depressive disorder than those without. QoL improvement was significantly greater in those receiving escitalopram than those receiving placebo over the 24-week treatment period. In the 1-year follow-up, the better outcomes associated with escitalopram remained evident against both placebo and MTO.
Depression was significantly associated with worse QoL even in patients with recently developed ACS. Depression treatment was associated with QoL improvement in ACS patients in the 24-week treatment period, the effects of which extended to 1 year.
Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children.
A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated.
Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri.
The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD.
The Arabidopsis gene AVP1 encodes a vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (enzyme classification (EC) 184.108.40.206) that functions as an electronic proton pump in the vacuolar membrane and affects growth development and the stress response in plants. The current study was conducted to evaluate the molecular properties of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Incorporation and expression of the transgene was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the AVP1 gene in transgenic rice plants (TRP1 and TRP2) resulted in a significantly enhanced tolerance to 5·8 g/l NaCl under greenhouse conditions when compared with the control wild-type (WT) rice plants. Augmented AVP1 expression in the transgenic rice plants (TRP) also affected total biomass and improved ion homoeostasis through increased accumulation of Na+ ions in whole tissues when compared with control WT rice plants under high salinity conditions. The photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) values of TRP were higher than those of the WT rice plants, even though the values decreased over time in both the WT and transgenic (TRP1 to TRP8) rice plants. Furthermore, rice grain yield and biomass of the TRP were at least 15% higher based on culm and root weights, and panicle and spikelet numbers when compared with those of the WT rice plants during the 2010 and 2010 growing seasons in South Korea. Thus, these results suggest that ectopic AVP1 expression conferred tolerance and stress resistance to genetically modified transgenic crop plants by improving cellular ion homoeostasis in response to saline conditions, which enhanced rice yield and biomass under natural conditions in paddy fields.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the muscle fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and its relation to growth performance in the random bred control (RBC) and heavy weight (HW) Japanese quail lines at 42 days of age. The HW line had greater body (232.0 v. 100.2 g, P < 0.001) and pectoralis major muscle (19.0 v. 6.2 g, P < 0.001) weights than the RBC line. Color differences were observed between the superficial and deep regions of the pectoralis major muscle, with the superficial region showing a higher value of lightness than the deep region of the RBC or HW lines (P < 0.001). The percentage of the superficial region in the pectoralis major muscle was higher in the HW line compared with the RBC line (46.2% v. 38.0%, P = 0.017). There were no significant differences in the total fiber number in the superficial and deep regions between the two quail lines (P = 0.718). The HW quail line showed a larger mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA; 375.5 v. 176.6 μm2, P < 0.001) and type IIA fiber CSA (243.7 v. 131.9 μm2, P < 0.001) than the RBC quail line. The HW line also had greater CSA percentage (60.2% v. 34.2%, P < 0.001) and number percentage (41.6% v. 14.2%, P < 0.001) of type IIB fibers, although there were no significant differences in type IIB fiber CSA between the RBC and HW lines (P = 0.219). Therefore, greater body and muscle weights of the HW line are caused by differences in muscle fiber characteristics, especially the proportion of type IIB fiber and the CSA of type IIA fiber, compared with the RBC line. The results of this study suggest that muscle fiber hypertrophy has more impact on body and muscle weights of the different quail lines than muscle fiber hyperplasia.
An efficient microwave-assisted polyol (MP) approach is report to prepare SnO2/graphene hybrid as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The key factor to this MP method is to start with uniform graphene oxide (GO) suspension, in which a large amount of surface oxygenate groups ensures homogeneous distribution of the SnO2 nanoparticles onto the GO sheets under the microwave irradiation. The period for the microwave heating only takes 10 min. The obtained SnO2/graphene hybrid anode possesses a reversible capacity of 967 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and a high Coulombic efficiency of 80.5% at the first cycle. The cycling performance and the rate capability of the hybrid anode are enhanced in comparison with that of the bare graphene anode. This improvement of electrochemical performance can be attributed to the formation of a 3-dimensional framework. Accordingly, this study provides an economical MP route for the fabrication of SnO2/graphene hybrid as an anode material for high-performance Li-ion batteries.
We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.
In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD Rating Scale – IV (ADHD-RS) and Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways.
After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities.
Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.