To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The importance of the hippocampus and amygdala for disrupted emotional memory formation in depression is well-recognized, but it remains unclear whether functional abnormalities are state-dependent and whether they are affected by the persistence of depressive symptoms.
Thirty-nine patients with major depressive disorder and 28 healthy controls were included from the longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sub-study of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Participants performed an emotional word-encoding and -recognition task during fMRI at baseline and 2-year follow-up measurement. At baseline, all patients were in a depressed state. We investigated state-dependency by relating changes in brain activation over time to changes in symptom severity. Furthermore, the effect of time spent with depressive symptoms in the 2-year interval was investigated.
Symptom change was linearly associated with higher activation over time of the left anterior hippocampus extending to the amygdala during positive and negative word-encoding. Especially during positive word encoding, this effect was driven by symptomatic improvement. There was no effect of time spent with depression in the 2-year interval on change in brain activation. Results were independent of medication- and psychotherapy-use.
Using a longitudinal within-subjects design, we showed that hippocampal–amygdalar activation during emotional memory formation is related to depressive symptom severity but not persistence (i.e. time spent with depression or ‘load’), suggesting functional activation patterns in depression are not subject to functional ‘scarring’ although this hypothesis awaits future replication.
Disturbances in emotion regulation (ER) are characteristic of both patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). We investigated the temporal dynamics of brain activation during cognitive ER in BD and SZ to understand the contribution of temporal characteristics of disturbed ER to their unique and shared symptomatology.
Forty-six participants performed an ER-task (BD, n = 15; SZ, n = 16; controls, n = 15) during functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which they were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal techniques to regulate their emotional responses. Finite impulse response modeling was applied to estimate the temporal dynamics of brain responses during cognitive reappraisal (v. passive attending) of negative pictures. Group, time, and group × time effects were tested using multivariate modeling.
We observed a group × time interaction during ER in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior occipital gyrus. Patients with SZ demonstrated initial hyper-activation of the VLPFC and SMA activation that was not sustained in later regulatory phases. Response profiles in the inferior occipital gyrus in SZ showed abnormal activation in the later phases of regulation. BD-patients showed general blunted responsivity in these regions.
These results suggest that ER-disturbances in SZ are characterized by an inefficient initialization and failure to sustain regulatory control, whereas in BD, a failure to recruit regulatory resources may represent initial deficits in formulating adequate representations of the regulatory needs. This may help to further understand how ER-disturbances give rise to symptomatology of BD and SZ.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
We discuss the principles of Optical interconnects, and discuss the potential of silicon photonics to provide all the necessary building blocks to construct dense, high-bandwidth, lowpower optical links. We discuss waveguides, wavelength division multiplexing, modulators and photodetectors. We also take a look at the options for implementing light sources, a function which silicon cannot natively provide, with a focus on implementations in the IMEC silicon photonics platform.
Laboratory trials were conducted in Uganda at the Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute to determine attraction, eclosion success and larval survivorship of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) on crop residues of different ages. In the first experiment, studies focused on different types and ages of residues of one susceptible highland banana clone ‘Nabusa’ (genome group AAA-EA). Corms attracted 65% of the test weevils, pseudostems 30%, while 5% were non-respondents. Oviposition levels and the number of eggs per female were higher on young than old corms. Eclosion rates of < 1-day-old eggs inserted into corm pieces of residues (cultivar ‘Kisansa’, genome group AAA-EA) declined from 66% in residues collected < 2 days after harvest (DAH) to 58% in residues collected >30 DAH. To assess immature survival, < 1-day-old 1st instar larvae were put on banana corms of suckers and crop residues of the cultivar Kisansa in single rearing chambers. The number of surviving individuals was recorded at 3-day intervals until adults emerged. Survivorship was 12% on sword suckers, 10% on maiden suckers and 7% on flowered plants; and 12% on residues collected < 2 DAH and 5% on residues collected >30 DAH. Larval duration and mean days taken for adult emergence increased with plant and crop residue age. Females emerging from the different plant and residues treatments were similar in weight. The data suggest that all aged residues are suitable hosts for C. sordidus, suggesting that sanitation practices should be implemented soon after harvest.
The integration to steady state of many initial value ODEs and PDEs using the forward Euler method
can alternatively be considered as gradient descent for an associated minimization problem.
Greedy algorithms such as steepest descent for determining the step size are as
slow to reach steady state as is forward Euler integration with the best uniform step size.
But other, much faster methods using bolder step size selection exist.
Various alternatives are investigated from both theoretical and practical points of view.
The steepest descent method is also known for the regularizing or smoothing effect that the
first few steps have for certain inverse problems,
amounting to a finite time regularization. We further investigate the retention of this
property using the faster gradient descent variants in the context of two applications.
When the combination of regularization and accuracy demands more than a dozen or so steepest
descent steps, the alternatives offer an advantage, even though (indeed because)
the absolute stability limit of forward Euler is carefully yet severely violated.
A collaborative exercise, supervised by the World Health Organisation, was set up to compare ELISAs used for the serological detection of Salmonella enteritica serotype Enteritidis in chickens. The aim was to ascertain how far agreement could be reached on the interpretation of optical density readings for high titre, intermediate titre and low titre sera. Two sets of sera were sent to 14 participants. The first set compared high, medium and low titre sera raised in specified-pathogen-free and commercial broiler breeder chickens. The second set comprised 20 sera of different antibody titres raised in commercial birds reared under laboratory conditions and sent blind. Both indirect and double-antibody sandwich blocking ELISAs were used with a number of different detecting antigens. With a few exceptions good agreement was reached on the interpretation of results obtained from high and low titre sera from the optical density obtained with a single serum dilution. Differences were observed in the interpretation of medium titre sera. The results suggested that most ELISAs produce reasonably comparable results and that practical problems may arise from interpretation of the results mainly as a result of the choice of the criteria used for differentiating sera obtained from infected and uninfected chickens. These problems are discussed.
Neuronal research requires to efficiently perform long-time experiments on large-scale neuronal networks in a minimally invasive way. Such experiments imply stimulation and measurements of electrical activity on a large number of neurons. This could be achieved by on-chip integration of actuators, sensors and readout electronics with dimensions comparable to the sizes of neurons. Integration of biosensors at this scale creates new challenges: the processing of the sensors must be compatible with state-of-the art CMOS technology, the system must be biocompatible, and the down-scaled technology imposes restrictions on the applicable stimulation voltages and increases the electrical noise.
Recently it has been demonstrated that biological phenomena can be exploited in order to achieve the best coupling between cells and sub-micron scale electronics. Engulfment of sub-micron nail structures by the cell membrane minimizes the distance between the sensor and the cell , .
This paper presents two methods to produce nails with sizes from sub-micrometer to micrometer scales, on top of a CMOS chip. Prototype chips have been fabricated, and cells have been cultured to examine the in-vitro bio-compatibility of the chip.
The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment oviposition levels were assessed in a banana system comprising growing plants and residues. Oviposition increased on sword suckers, reaching a peak 1–7 days after harvest and decreased thereafter. In the second experiment conducted on farmers' fields, corms received 70% of the eggs and pseudostems 30%. The area 5–10 cm below the collar received 27% of the eggs, the area 0–5 cm above the collar 30% and the area 5–10 cm above the collar 0.3%. The remaining eggs (43%) were laid 0–5 cm below the collar. The effect of stump height and covering the stumps was evaluated in both the wet and the dry seasons at Kawanda and Ntungamo. Cutting stumps to the ground level alone had no effect on oviposition. Covering post-harvest banana stumps reduced C. sordidus oviposition in the wet but not in the dry season.
We present a study of CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in MgO by precipitation of Cd and Se supersaturated solid solutions, created in MgO single crystals by ion implantation, in the temperature range between 300 °C and 1100 °C. For high-dose ion implantation, optical absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of the ∼1.8 eV CdSe semiconductor band-edge. Small sized nanocrystals adopt the rocksalt instead of the wurtzite structure because the former fits better in the MgO matrix and results in lower interface energies. A better understanding of these structural changes and optical properties is obtained from ab-initio total energy calculations on wurtzite, zincblende and rocksalt CdSe using the VASP pseudopotential code. The calculated electronic band structures are compared of zincblende CdSe, a direct band-gap semiconductor, and rocksalt CdSe, which has an indirect optical band-gap.
Results of the comprehensive study of deuterium-implanted hexagonal SiC (4H and 6H) using
optical absorption and infrared measurements, elastic recoil detection analysis, thermal desorption
and positron annihilation spectroscopies are reported. It is shown that implanted deuterium mainly
forms bonds with lattice atoms. The amount of deuterium in the form of interstitial molecules and in
vacancies is considerably smaller. Ion implantations with fluences exceeding 1015 D+/cm−2 create
point defects in concentrations sufficiently high for complete positron trapping. Recrystallisation of
the amorphised SiC does not remove the positron traps.
A survey among 240 resource-poor farmers at the Kenya coast indicated that insect pests were considered to be the main production constraint. Over 70% of respondents mentioned stemborers to be the most important insect pest. Unlike the eggs and adults, stemborer larvae and pupae were frequently seen by farmers. Alternative gramineous host plants for pests were common near maize fields and were often not destroyed until after the first rains. Nearly all farmers left dry stems and stubble in the field after harvest. Farmers knew of many methods for controlling stemborers, but only 32 and 56% of farmers in Kilifi and Kwale Districts, respectively, used any of the methods. Chemical control was the most popular control method, being applied regularly by 19 and 38% of farmers in Kilifi and Kwale Districts, respectively. Traditional methods and cultural control methods were seldom used. Approximately 50% of farmers had heard of beneficial insects, with farmers collectively mentioning 17 predators of stemborers. Cocoons of the parasitoids Cotesia flavipes, released in a biological control programme in the study area in 1993, and the indigenous Cotesia sesamiae had been seen by 33% of respondents, but none knew what these were. The results of the present study stress the need to educate farmers about the biology and ecology of stemborers and the role of natural enemies. Also, after effective control methods suitable for resource-poor farmers have been identified, both groups should be trained in pest management methods, for example through the Farmers Field School approach.
The biology of two African sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Apionidae), was studied in laboratory experiments carried out at 27 ± 1°C, 45 ± 5% RH, and a 12 h photophase. Cylas puncticollis females lived longer than C. brunneus (141 ± 10 and 92±12 days respectively), developed faster (egg to adult 20–28 days, and 32–41 days respectively) and had a lower oviposition rate (1.10 ± 0.04 and 1.53 ± 0.06 eggs per female per day respectively). The total egg production per female (average 101), sex ratio (1:1) and proportion of eggs surviving to adulthood (average 89%) were similar for both species. The intrinsic rate of increase was higher for C. puncticollis (0.553 per 10-day period compared to 0.521 for C. brunneus). Under field conditions C. brunneus will benefit from its higher oviposition rate during periods of favourable conditions for sweet potato weevils, like dry spells which expose tubers for egg laying. Cylas puncticollis will benefit from its longer longevity during less favourable conditions, as females can survive extended periods when no oviposition sites are available and then resume egg laying when conditions improve.
The performance of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan was studied when reared on eggs of the bruchid storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) developing in seeds of cowpea, chickpea and pigeonpea. The beetle laid more and larger eggs on pigeonpea than on cowpea and chickpea, indicating that there was not a trade-off between number and size of the eggs. The bruchid larvae reared on pigeonpea exhibited a longer development time and a higher mortality than those reared on cowpea and chickpea. The resulting males weighed less than those reared on cowpea and chickpea. The trichogrammatid U. lariophaga parasitized more eggs when C. maculatus was reared on chickpea than when reared on the other hosts. Parasitoid larvae developed slowest and had the highest mortality in eggs of C. maculatus reared on pigeonpea compared to those reared on cowpea and chickpea; the sex ratio (% of females) of the resulting adults was also higher. The high mortality and long development time of C. maculatus reared on pigeonpea indicated that this legume was less favourable to C. maculatus than chickpea or cowpea. This was probably also true for the parasitoid since the mortality was higher and development longer in eggs of C. maculatus reared on pigeonpea compared to those reared on cowpea and chickpea. Therefore, when host eggs were larger and of lower nutritional quality, the proportion of female egg parasitoids was greater.