A linked chain of 1D river model RIVTOX and 3D estuary model THREETOX was used to assess impact of the previous and potential releases from the nuclear installations in the basins of Ob' and Yenisey rivers on radioactive contamination of the rivers and the Kara Sea. The RIVTOX includes the model of river hydraulics, suspended sediment and radionuclide transport in river channels. THREETOX includes a set of sub-models: a hydrodynamics sub-model, ice dynamics-thermodynamics sub-model, suspended sediment transport and radionuclide transport sub-models. The radionuclide transport model simulates processes in the water, suspended sediments and in bottom sediments. The simulations of the flux of 90Sr and 137Cs through the Ob' River and estuary from activities at the Mayak Production Association for the period 1949-1994 and through the Yenisey River and estuary from activities at the Mining, Chemical Combine for the period 1959-1994 were carried out. Based on scenarios, simulations have been performed in order to assess the potential risk of contamination from existing and potential sources of radionuclides into the Kara Sea through the Ob' and Yenisey rivers.