To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Quantitative plant biology is an interdisciplinary field that builds on a long history of biomathematics and biophysics. Today, thanks to high spatiotemporal resolution tools and computational modelling, it sets a new standard in plant science. Acquired data, whether molecular, geometric or mechanical, are quantified, statistically assessed and integrated at multiple scales and across fields. They feed testable predictions that, in turn, guide further experimental tests. Quantitative features such as variability, noise, robustness, delays or feedback loops are included to account for the inner dynamics of plants and their interactions with the environment. Here, we present the main features of this ongoing revolution, through new questions around signalling networks, tissue topology, shape plasticity, biomechanics, bioenergetics, ecology and engineering. In the end, quantitative plant biology allows us to question and better understand our interactions with plants. In turn, this field opens the door to transdisciplinary projects with the society, notably through citizen science.
We present an overview of the SkyMapper optical follow-up programme for gravitational-wave event triggers from the LIGO/Virgo observatories, which aims at identifying early GW170817-like kilonovae out to
distance. We describe our robotic facility for rapid transient follow-up, which can target most of the sky at
to a depth of
. We have implemented a new software pipeline to receive LIGO/Virgo alerts, schedule observations and examine the incoming real-time data stream for transient candidates. We adopt a real-bogus classifier using ensemble-based machine learning techniques, attaining high completeness (
) and purity (
) over our whole magnitude range. Applying further filtering to remove common image artefacts and known sources of transients, such as asteroids and variable stars, reduces the number of candidates by a factor of more than 10. We demonstrate the system performance with data obtained for GW190425, a binary neutron star merger detected during the LIGO/Virgo O3 observing campaign. In time for the LIGO/Virgo O4 run, we will have deeper reference images allowing transient detection to
The relationship between wisdom and fluid intelligence (Gf) is poorly understood, particularly in older adults. We empirically tested the magnitude of the correlation between wisdom and Gf to help determine the extent of overlap between these two constructs.
Cross-sectional study with preregistered hypotheses and well-powered analytic plan (https://osf.io/h3pjx).
Memory and Aging Center at the University of California San Francisco, located in the USA.
Wisdom was quantified using a well-validated self-report-based scale (San Diego Wisdom Scale or SD-WISE). Gf was assessed via composite measures of processing speed (Gf-PS) and executive functioning (Gf-EF). The relationships of SD-WISE scores to Gf-PS and Gf-EF were tested in bivariate correlational analyses and multiple regression models adjusted for demographics (age, sex, and education). Exploratory analyses evaluated the relationships between SD-WISE and age, episodic memory performance, and dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortical volumes on magnetic resonance imaging.
Wisdom showed a small, positive association with Gf-EF (r = 0.181 [95% CI 0.016, 0.336], p = .031), which was reduced to nonsignificance upon controlling for demographics, and no association with Gf-PS (r = 0.019 [95% CI −0.179, 0.216], p = .854). Wisdom demonstrated a small, negative correlation with age (r = −0.197 [95% CI −0.351, −0.033], p = .019), but was not significantly related to episodic memory or prefrontal volumes.
Our findings indicate that most of the variance in wisdom (>95%) is unaccounted for by Gf. The independence of wisdom from cognitive functions that reliably show age-associated declines suggests that it may hold unique potential to bolster decision-making, interpersonal functioning, and other everyday activities in older adults.
This study aimed to compare the necessary scutum defect for transmeatal visualisation of middle-ear landmarks between an endoscopic and microscopic approach.
Human cadaveric heads were used. In group 1, middle-ear landmarks were visualised by endoscope (group 1 endoscopic approach) and subsequently by microscope (group 1 microscopic approach following endoscopy). In group 2, landmarks were visualised solely microscopically (group 2 microscopic approach). The amount of resected bone was evaluated via computed tomography scans.
In the group 1 endoscopic approach, a median of 6.84 mm3 bone was resected. No statistically significant difference (Mann–Whitney U test, p = 0.163, U = 49.000) was found between the group 1 microscopic approach following endoscopy (median 17.84 mm3) and the group 2 microscopic approach (median 20.08 mm3), so these were combined. The difference between the group 1 endoscopic approach and the group 1 microscopic approach following endoscopy plus group 2 microscopic approach (median 18.16 mm3) was statistically significant (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.001, U = 18.000).
This study showed that endoscopic transmeatal visualisation of middle-ear landmarks preserves more of the bony scutum than a microscopic transmeatal approach.
Mr. C, a 75-year-old man, noticed difficulty remembering names and adding numbers after wakening while on vacation. Although these problems were quite subtle, his wife was puzzled because he seemed to have no difficulty the day before. One week later, he noted that “something was wrong” but could not describe the changes in detail. He felt that his balance was “not right” and experienced difficulty keeping track of his golf scores. Over the next few months, he developed word-finding problems and had difficulty expressing himself. He was very forgetful, had trouble problem solving, was distractible, and was unable to do simple calculations. Whereas he had previously been very reserved, he started talking with others in a more open way than he would normally have done. He continued to complain of balance problems and started to notice changes in his handwriting.
Disadvantages of intravenous therapeutic unfractionated heparin, the first-line anti-coagulant agent in children with complex congenital heart disease, include unpredictable pharmacokinetics requiring frequent phlebotomies and the need for continuous intravenous access.
To compare efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparin administered by a subcutaneous indwelling catheter with intravenous unfractionated heparin.
Materials and methods:
Clinical data from 31 inpatients prospectively enrolled to receive subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin were compared with those from a historical group of 44 inpatients receiving intravenous unfractionated heparin. Investigation of parents’ satisfaction by telephone survey.
The percentage of anti-factor Xa levels outside therapeutic range was lower in the subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin group compared with the percentage of activated partial thromboplastin times outside therapeutic range in the intravenous unfractionated heparin group (40% versus 90%, p < 0.001). Neither group had a major complication. Transient local reactions occurred in 19% of patients of the subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin group. The number of needle punctures and that of placement of indwelling catheters were significantly lower in the subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin compared with the intravenous unfractionated heparin group (p < 0.001). In total, 84.2% of parents in the subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin group reported a positive experience when asked about comparison with prior intravenous unfractionated heparin treatment.
Subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin offers a safe anti-coagulation regimen for children with complex congenital heart disease providing more efficient therapeutic anti-coagulation and a reduction in needle punctures, thus causing less pain and anxiety in this children.
The design and the early commissioning of the ELI-Beamlines laser facility’s 30 J, 30 fs, 10 Hz HAPLS (High-repetition-rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System) beam transport (BT) system to the P3 target chamber are described in detail. It is the world’s first and with 54 m length, the longest distance high average power petawatt (PW) BT system ever built. It connects the HAPLS pulse compressor via the injector periscope with the 4.5 m diameter P3 target chamber of the plasma physics group in hall E3. It is the largest target chamber of the facility and was connected first to the BT system. The major engineering challenges are the required high vibration stability mirror support structures, the high pointing stability optomechanics as well as the required levels for chemical and particle cleanliness of the vacuum vessels to preserve the high laser damage threshold of the dielectrically coated high-power mirrors. A first commissioning experiment at low pulse energy shows the full functionality of the BT system to P3 and the novel experimental infrastructure.
Up until now, there is much debate about the role of asymptomatic patients and pauci-symptomatic patients in severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, and little is known about the kinetics of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) shedding in these populations. This article aims to describe key features and the nature of asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The cohort consisted of six participants, three pairs, which were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during February 2020 on board the Diamond Princess. Of the six confirmed (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) cases, four were initially diagnosed in Japan and two upon their arrival to Israel. Duration of infection was between four days and up to 26 days. Of the six patients, three were completely asymptomatic and the others were pauci-symptomatic. All five patients in whom a computerized tomography (CT) scan was performed had lung pathology. In one patient, infectivity was tested using cell culture and a cytopathic effect was demonstrated. A serology test was performed in three of the patients and all three had a positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) four to eight weeks after disease onset. This case series demonstrates that asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic patients may play a role in infection transmission by demonstrating probable transmission among asymptomatic spouses and by demonstrating a viable virus via a cell culture. Additionally, asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic patients can have lung pathology and developing IgG antibodies.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Objective: We evaluated whether memory recall following an extended (1 week) delay predicts cognitive and brain structural trajectories in older adults
Clinically normal older adults (52–92 years old) were followed longitudinally for up to 8 years after completing a memory paradigm at baseline [Story Recall Test (SRT)] that assessed delayed recall at 30 min and 1 week. Subsets of the cohort underwent neuroimaging (N = 134, mean age = 75) and neuropsychological testing (N = 178–207, mean ages = 74–76) at annual study visits occurring approximately 15–18 months apart. Mixed-effects regression models evaluated if baseline SRT performance predicted longitudinal changes in gray matter volumes and cognitive composite scores, controlling for demographics.
Worse SRT 1-week recall was associated with more precipitous rates of longitudinal decline in medial temporal lobe volumes (p = .037), episodic memory (p = .003), and executive functioning (p = .011), but not occipital lobe or total gray matter volumes (demonstrating neuroanatomical specificity; p > .58). By contrast, SRT 30-min recall was only associated with longitudinal decline in executive functioning (p = .044).
Memory paradigms that capture longer-term recall may be particularly sensitive to age-related medial temporal lobe changes and neurodegenerative disease trajectories. (JINS, 2020, xx, xx-xx)
In Germany, sheep are the main source of human Q fever epidemics, but data on Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) infections and related risk factors in the German sheep population remain scarce. In this cross-sectional study, a standardised interview was conducted across 71 exclusively sheep as well as mixed (sheep and goat) farms to identify animal and herd level risk factors associated with the detection of C. burnetii antibodies or pathogen-specific gene fragments via univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Serum samples and genital swabs from adult males and females of 3367 small ruminants from 71 farms were collected and analysed using ELISA and qPCR, respectively. On animal level, univariable analysis identified young animals (<2 years of age; odds ratio (OR) 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–0.83) to reduce the risk for seropositivity significantly (p < 0.05). The final multivariable logistic models identified lambing all year-round (OR 3.46/3.65; 95% CI 0.80–15.06/0.41–32.06) and purchases of sheep and goats (OR 13.61/22.99; 95% CI 2.86–64.64/2.21–239.42) as risk factors on herd level for C. burnetii infection detected via ELISA and qPCR, respectively.
This study aimed to assess whether increasing operative experience results in better surgical outcomes in endoscopic middle-ear surgery.
A retrospective single-institution cohort study was performed. Patients underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty between May 2013 and April 2019 performed by the senior surgeon or a trainee surgeon under direct supervision from the senior surgeon. Following data collection, statistical analysis compared success rates between early (learning curve) surgical procedures and later (experienced) tympanoplasties.
In total, 157 patients (86 male, 71 female), with a mean age of 41.6 years, were included. The patients were followed up for an average of 43.2 weeks. The overall primary closure rate was 90.0 per cent.
This study demonstrates an early learning curve for endoscopic ear surgery that improves with surgical experience. Adoption of the endoscopic technique did not impair the success rates of tympanoplasty.
Continuous arterial spin labelling (cASL) is a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging method increasingly used to study human brain function and perfusion physiology.
In this study, we investigated distinct patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in MDD patients by means of resting state cASL.
11 healthy controls and 11 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV criteria were included. The individual cASL images underwent data preprocessing steps including the generation of perfusion-weighted images, followed by conversion to quantified CBF. An analysis of temporally coherent CBF patterns was performed using a spatial Independent Component Analysis.
Both groups showed distinct blood flow patterns in a medial frontoparietal and lateral temporal component (“default mode” network), a medial temporal and anterior cingulate component (“limbic” network) and bilateral prefrontal and parietal component (“cognitive” network). Within the “limbic” network, MDD patients showed a pattern of increased CBF in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, cingulate, striatal and hippocampal regions. Within the “cognitive” network, MDD patients showed a pattern of increased CBF in left dorsolateral prefrontal and the inferior parietal areas. Decreased perfusion in MDD patients was found in the right precuneus, the right inferior parietal cortex, the left posterior cingulate and the left lateral temporal cortex.
These preliminary data demonstrate the sensitivity of cASL techniques for detecting resting state CBF changes in MDD patients. Thus, cASL studies in MDD could provide valuable information with regard to neurobiologically characterized endophenotypes, while resting state CBF measures could serve as objective predictors of treatment response in future studies.
Despite considerable advances in the evidence-based treatments, the long-term management of depressive disorders remains a challenge. Many depressive disorders follow a chronic or recurrent course. Substantial proportions of patients end treatment, especially those with residual symptoms, leave treatment with considerable risk for relapses and/or persistent psychosocial impairment. Long-term strategies are needed that can effectively help patients minimize the negative consequences of their illness without imposing a too much of an extra burden. We present the protocol of a multi-center RCT on the efficacy of an Internet based disease management strategy for the specific health conditions in recurrent depression. 234 patients who are treated for their minimum third episode of a major depression (MD) in one of the six participating centers will participate post-treatment in one of two internet delivered interventions or usual care alone. The interventions continue over 12 months and consist of supportive monitoring, an online forum for peer support, and individual crisis management either with or without personal clinical support. Primary outcome of the trial is the ratio of “well” to “unwell weeks” over a 24-month observation period after index treatment assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. We would like to discuss the new options that information and communication technology offers for long-term disease management strategies for patients with recurrent depression and invite for a discussion about strategies for other chronic mental disorders.