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Whole-plant soybean silage (WPSS) is a potential high-protein roughage source for ruminant diets. However, WPSS can be difficult to ensile and fermentation is a challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chitosan and microbial inoculants on fermentation profile, fermentation losses, chemical composition, and in vitro degradation of WPSS. Forty experimental silos (PVC tubing with 28 cm i.d. and 25 cm height) were produced. Soybean plants from 10 plots were ensiled in a completely randomized block design to evaluate the following treatments: (1) control (CON): WPSS without additives; (2) chitosan (CHI): WPSS additive with 6 g/kg DM of chitosan; (3) LBB: WPSS treated with 5.0 × 107 colony-forming units (CFU) of Lactobacillus buchneri (NCIM 40788) per kg of fresh matter and (4) LPP: WPSS treated with 1.6 × 108 CFU of Lactobacillus plantarum and 1.6 × 108 CFU of Pediococcus acidilactici per kg of fresh matter. Silos were opened 120 days after ensiling. Microbial inoculants reduced silage pH, whereas LPP-treated silos showed the lowest concentration of NH3-N, ethanol, butyric, acetic, branched-chain, and propionic organic acids. LBB-treatment decreased lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count relative to other treatments, and LPP-treatment showed the lowest fermentation losses, improving dry matter (DM) recovery. Relative to other treatments, LPP increased silage DM, organic matter, and decreased acid detergent insoluble crude protein (CP), improving DM and neutral detergent fibre in vitro degradation. Treatments showed no effect on silage aerobic stability. Thus, LPP-treatment improves fermentation profile, reduces fermentation losses, and increases the nutritional value of WPSS.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a live culture of Aspergillus oryzae (A; CCT4359) and fibrolytic enzyme (E; Fibrozyme Alltech Inc.) on fibre digestibility by a gas production bioassay and in vitro degradation of maize silage and sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design trial was performed to evaluate: A doses (0, 20, 60 and 100 mg/l), E doses (0, 160, 320 and 480 mg/l) and roughage source (R; maize and sugarcane silage) in a 4 × 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The inclusion of increasing doses of A and E increased dry matter and neutral detergent fibre in vitro digestibility linearly, but for E this effect occurred only in maize silage. There was a linear increase in the potential for gas production at the highest dose of A only in sugarcane silage, with no effect on lag time (L). Increasing doses of E increased the volume of gases produced linearly, and a trend of linear reduction of L, regardless of the roughage. There was a linear reduction in ammonia-nitrogen concentration in response to increasing doses of A and E, and an increase in acetic acid concentration at the highest dose of A, regardless of roughage. The additives had no synergistic effect on gas production and digestibility, but were efficient in altering the fermentative pattern, demonstrating the potential to increase fibre degradation.
Strenuous physical activity, sleep deprivation and psychological stress are common features of military field training. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with a synbiotic ice cream on salivary IgA, gastrointestinal symptoms, well-being indicators and gut microbiota in young military participants undergoing field training. Sixty-five military completed the study: one group was supplemented for 30 d with synbiotic ice cream containing: 2·1 × 108 CFU/g for Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and 2·7 × 109 CFU/g for Bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 and 2·3 g of inulin in the 60 g of ice cream at manufacture, and the other with a placebo ice cream. Volunteers were evaluated at pre-supplementation (baseline), post-supplementation and after a 5-d military training. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera were measured in stool samples and both showed a higher differential abundance post-supplementation and training. Salivary IgA and gastrointestinal symptoms decreased at post-training in both groups (P < 0·05; main effect of time); however, supplementation with synbiotic did not mitigate this effect. Tenseness and sleepiness were decreased in the synbiotic-treated group, but not in the placebo group at post-military training (P = 0·01 and 0·009, respectively; group × time effect). The other well-being indicators were not affected by the synbiotic supplementation. In conclusion, 30 d of synbiotic ice cream supplementation containing inulin, L. acidophilus LA-5 and B. animalis BB-12 favourably modulated gut microbiota and improved tenseness and sleepiness in healthy young military undergoing a 5-d field training. These improvements may be relevant to this population as they may influence the decision-making process in an environment of high physical and psychological stress.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with social cognition (SC) impairments even during remission periods although a large heterogeneity has been described. Our aim was to explore the existence of different profiles on SC in euthymic patients with BD, and further explore the potential impact of distinct variables on SC.
Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using three SC domains [Theory of Mind (ToM), Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Attributional Bias (AB)]. The sample comprised of 131 individuals, 71 patients with BD and 60 healthy control subjects who were compared in terms of SC performance, demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive variables. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the effect of SC-associated risk factors.
A two-cluster solution was identified with an adjusted-performance group (N = 48, 67.6%) and a low-performance group (N = 23, 32.4%) with mild deficits in ToM and AB domains and with moderate difficulties in EI. Patients with low SC performance were mostly males, showed lower estimated IQ, higher subthreshold depressive symptoms, longer illness duration, and poorer visual memory and attention. Low estimated IQ (OR 0.920, 95% CI 0.863–0.981), male gender (OR 5.661, 95% CI 1.473–21.762), and longer illness duration (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.006–1.171) contributed the most to the patients clustering. The model explained up to 35% of the variance in SC performance.
Our results confirmed the existence of two discrete profiles of SC among BD. Nearly two-thirds of patients exhibited adjusted social cognitive abilities. Longer illness duration, male gender, and lower estimated IQ were associated with low SC performance.
Improving functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the main objectives in clinical practice. Of the few psychosocial interventions that have been specifically developed to enhance the psychosocial outcome in BD, functional remediation (FR) is one which has demonstrated efficacy. The aim of this study was to examine which variables could predict improved functional outcome following the FR intervention in a sample of euthymic or subsyndromal patients with BD.
A total of 92 euthymic outpatients were included in this longitudinal study, with 62 completers. Partial correlations controlling for the functional outcome at baseline were calculated between demographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables, and functional outcome at endpoint was assessed by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test scale. Next, a multiple regression analysis was run in order to identify potential predictors of functional outcome at 2-year follow-up, using the variables found to be statistically significant in the correlation analysis and other variables related to functioning as identified in the previous scientific literature.
The regression model revealed that only two independent variables significantly contributed to the model (F(6,53): 4.003; p = 0.002), namely verbal memory and inhibitory control. The model accounted for 31.2% of the variance. No other demographic or clinical variable contributed to the model.
Results suggest that patients with better cognitive performance at baseline, especially in terms of verbal memory and executive functions, may present better functional outcomes at long term follow-up after receiving functional remediation.
Improving adherence in mental patients, growing up insight and reducing stigmatization.
Giving simple and clear messages to families and patients for learning about symptoms and the management of daily difficulties.
Three were the main pillars of our work: patients’ opinion, professional knowledge and families contributions. First, patients were questioned about “What is for you mental illness?” “May you explain your illness?” and the answers were completed with a collage/picture. Those opinions were evaluated by the group and the therapist. We already made reunions with a mental patients association and family groups to expose their opinions and daily life difficulties.
Analyzing drawing-collage characteristics, medical histories and reflections from patients and families, we achieved an individual management for patients. Families could expose doubts and suggestions about patients care. We offered a multidisciplinary management to develop insight and adherence.
“The other shore of mental illness” is a book with a psicoeducative propose about useful concepts of mental illness. It emerges from the professional need to approach to the other shore, families and patients’ opinions and feelings.
Drawing has been used as worktherapy, becoming a benefit for diagnosis and evolution in mental illness. In this book we used them as a means in the improvement of insight and adherence.
The work with families, patients and caregivers let therapists to attend the real difficulties in their daily lives.
The book would be not only a vehicle to reduce stigma, but also a reflection on avoiding discriminatory politicals in mental patients assistance.
To examine the association between sociocultural pressures, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among female French students.
Participants were 201 women from a Toulouse University (mean age=20.70 years, SD=2.56). Pressure perceived from the media, peers and parents was assessed using parallel scales. The questionnaire also assessed body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (BU) and self-reported height and weight.
Participants reported higher scores of peer pressure (mean= 6.87, SD=1.82), than media pressure (mean= 6.14, SD=2.32) and parental pressure (mean= 5.41, SD= 1.44). The difference between the pressure perceived from each source was significant (p< .001). BD was significantly correlated with pressure from the media (r= .25), peers (r= .19), and parents (r= .21). DT was also significantly correlated with pressure from all three sources (r= .21; r= .25 and r= .17 respectively). BU was significantly correlated only with media pressure (r= .16). Hierarchical regression revealed that BMI, and sociocultural pressures, accounted for 38% of the variance in BD F(4, 190)= 28.63, p=< 001, with BMI, media and parental pressure as predictors. BMI, media and peer pressure were predictors of DT F(4, 190)= 28.26, p=< 001, R2=21. BMI and media pressure were predictors of BU F(4, 190)= 6.41, p=< 001, R2=12.
Sociocultural pressure contributes strongly to body image and eating concern among French students. These findings highlight the importance of developing sociocultural models among French populations, and the need for prevention interventions that build on these frameworks.
Interactions between the pharmaceutical industry (PI) and psychiatrists have been under scrutiny recently, though there is little empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship and its intensity at psychiatry trainee level. We therefore studied the level of PI interactions and the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a large sample of European psychiatric trainees.
One thousand four hundred and forty-four psychiatric trainees in 20 European countries were assessed cross-sectionally, with a 62-item questionnaire.
The total number of PI interactions in the preceding two months varied between countries, with least interactions in The Netherlands (M (Mean) = 0.92, SD = 1.44, range = 0–12) and most in Portugal (M = 19.06, SD = 17.44, range = 0–100). Trainees were more likely to believe that PI interactions have no impact on their own prescribing behaviour than that of other physicians (M = 3.30, SD = 1.26 vs. M = 2.39, SD = 1.06 on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 “completely disagree” to 5 “completely agree”). Assigning an educational role to the pharmaceutical industry was associated with more interactions and higher gift value (IRR (incidence rate ratio) = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.12–1.30 and OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.02–1.37).
There are frequent interactions between European psychiatric trainees and the PI, with significant variation between countries. We identified several factors affecting this interaction, including attribution of an educational role to the PI. Creating alternative educational opportunities and specific training dedicated to PI interactions may therefore help to reduce the impact of the PI on psychiatric training.
The influence of pharmaceutical industry (PI) on clinical practice and research in psychiatry has been considered a serious problem. Strict rules and guidelines were developed to regulate the interactions between doctors and PI. However, there is an ongoing debate whether these were thoroughly implemented in practice and internalized by physicians. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors of trainees in psychiatry and child & adolescent psychiatry toward PI across Europe. Methodologically, a validated questionnaire with additional items was administered to1444 trainees in 20 European countries. The minimum response rate was set at 60%. We found a high variation across countries in number of interactions between trainees and PI representatives; Portugal and Turkey had the highest number of interactions. The majority (59.76%) agreed that interactions with PI representatives have an impact on physicians’ prescribing behavior; whereas only 29.26% and 19.79% agreed interactions with PI representatives and gifts from PI have impact on their own prescribing behavior, respectively. Most of the gifts were considered appropriate by the majority, except tickets to vacation spot and social dinner at a restaurant. Of the sample, 70.76% think they have not been given sufficient training regarding how to interact with PI representatives. Only less than 20% indicated they have guidelines at institutional or national level. In conclusion, there is substantial interaction between trainees and PI across countries. The majority feel inadequately trained regarding professional interaction with PI, and believes they are immune to the influence of PI.
in psychodynamic group psychotherapy it is used to divide patients in different groups with direct access and/or after preliminary individual sessions. Since 2003 our research group started a new method. Aim of this study was to assess the value of this new methodology.
Material and methods:
we use: psychodynamic approach, 10–14 patients, open access for pathology, age, sex, starting and ending. Therapy begins with individual sessions. Therapy deals with symptoms, intra-psychic conflicts, and private issues. Meanwhile psychiatrist develops relational capacity of the patient, allowing him to enter group therapy. We continue, at the same time, with individual and group therapy, for a time different for each case. Then therapy continues in the group only, until its ends. The duration of the three steps is variable, but the total amount of time of the therapeutic approach is reduced by half in 10 years.
Efficiency of this method is divided in three points. 1) Advantages for the single patient in the group: improvement of patient privacy; decrease of transferal resistance, acting-out and drop-out; economic advantages. 2) Advantages for group dynamics: decrease of aggressive behavior and interpersonal conflicts, improving of climate group; attenuation of hierarchal levels among patients, manipulation, fabrication, selfpity, narcissism. 3) Advantages for psychiatrist: continuous monitoring of the new patient or ‘difficult’ or risky patients with decrease of countertrasfert issues.
This methodology is an effective alternative to the usual group therapy. It allows a thorough and solid approach to the patient, offering a larger possibility of patient recovery.
Different studies indicate that emotions can interfere with the efficacy of inhibitory control. However, understanding this impact requires considering that inhibition is not a unitary construct. Cognitive inhibition is the process responsible for attenuating and resisting the interference of thoughts, representations, and memories that are irrelevant to the task at hand. Due to the relevance of emotional stimuli for survival, different studies have indicated that the performance of cognitive inhibition can vary depending on the context, that is, whether in neutral or emotionally salient contexts. During the interval between 8 and 12 years old, the importance of this skill is rooted in the need for controlling reactions and stimuli that could be disruptive for learning. In this study, 395 children aged 8–12 years performed a 1-back visual task with emotional and neutral stimuli in order to assess cognitive inhibition in contexts with high and low emotional salience. The results support the validity of the task for the evaluation of cognitive inhibition. However, no significant differences were found, depending on the context, as expected. It is emphasised that these results constitute an approach to the problem of emotional content interference in children that considers the multidimensional approach of inhibition.
In psychiatric clinical practice, we can face numerous organic diseases in the differential diagnosis between primary psychiatric disorders. As an example of this, we can see the autoimmune limbic encephalitis(LE), which in a significant percentage of cases begins with psychiatric symptoms. Currently, one of the theories of the origin of the LE is as a idiopathic autoimmune entity, leaving behind the idea of been generated only by a viral or paraneoplastic etiology.
To achieve a better knowledge about this underdiagnosed entity, presenting a case of an anti-LGI1 limbic encephalitis.
A 60-year-old Caucasian woman who starts with neuropsychiatric symptoms as: behavioral disorders, manic symptoms, memory impairment and attention deficit.
Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed when the patient had positive results in both serum and CSF samples for anti-LGI1 antibodies. Gastric neuroendocrino tumour type I was discovered. Neither paraneoplasic syndrome nor onconeuronal antibodies were shown. A thin hyperintense signal was identified in the left hippocampus using a brain MRI. Despite the patient had been treated with corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and immunoglobulins, she still showed positive antibodies in CSF samples with poor clinical results, especially psychiatric symptoms. The patient required one psychiatric hospitalization due to reference and persecutory delusions and manic symptoms.
Our patient had an unsatisfactory evolution with little response to immune treatment. Given the possible underdiagnosis of this condition, the importance of a differential diagnosis and an early treatment, we consider that there is an important need for a greater knowledge and scientific divulgation of this clinical entity.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Huntington's Korea or Huntington's disease is a pathology of the nervous central system that provokes involuntary movements those who are named Korea or San Vito's evil, changes of conduct, psychiatric alterations and dementia. It thinks that it is a slightly frequent disease among the caucasian ones (1 every 100,000 or 200,000 persons), except in Venezuela that has the highest rate of the world (1 every 10,000). It is named badly of San Vito because he was the saint, the one that was evoked to treat this type of disease. It is a neurodegenerative disease and is accompanied of atrophy of the fluted body and loss of neurons on decrease of neurotransmitters. Members’ spasmodic movements and facial muscles as dance, uncoordination motorboat. These movements woke fear and superstition up in an epoch. Alterations motorboats attitude, march and abnormal movements. Loss of weight for faults in swallowing besides the loss of calories (approximately 4000 daily ones for the constant movement). Not only it is a disease motorboat, the patient loses aptitude to communicate and dies in 10-15 years. There are psychiatric symptoms as the depression, changes of personality, decrease of intellectual capacity and suicide. Let's sense beforehand a clinical case of a 69-year-old patient with psychiatric depressive precedents of years of evolution with treatment psychopharmacology and worsening in last 2 years. Treatment is prescribed with antipsychotic and before a not well-taken quake, is studied by neurology who diagnoses Huntington's disease.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Arab Astronomical Society (ArAS) was officially created during the constitutional assembly held in Marrakech (Morocco) on November 30, 2016, and legally recognized on May 15, 2017. ArAS is composed of a group of Arab researchers and students in the field of astrophysics who aim to develop research in this field in the Arab world (22 countries). ArAS is working on bridging the gap between the Arab astrophysicists in the Arab world and those around the world by organizing collaborative workshops and international scientific meetings, offering scholarships and developing graduate programs in astrophysics. Presently, the Society is working on establishing personal and material scientific infrastructure in the Arab world by training advanced undergraduate and graduate students in astrophysics and stimulating the building of new telescopes on the best sites in the Arab world. This will be accomplished through the hosting of specialized schools and conferences in astrophysics, international collaborations, facilitation of students’ and post-docs’ training in international research centres and universities, the establishment of prizes in astronomy to honour leading Arab scientists in astronomy and to motivate junior researchers to present notable works in astronomy. In this work, we present the on-going ArAS activities as well as future projects. ArAS is a young but energetic organization which is welcoming collaborations and partnership with other groups.
Just as in the past, the development of the natural sciences and in particular of astronomy has changed the history of humanity. If we think about the role of our discipline into the future, it shows its enormous power in the field of education, owing to the possibility of awakening interest in science in very varied audiences. Within the framework of the enormous progress made in the technologies related to astronomy, many of them of daily use, the role of the astronomer in the era of Communications acquires fundamental importance.
In this presentation, we will try to make a journey through the different ways of presenting astronomical topics for different audiences over the last 100 years. In turn, we will show some specific achievements, associated with education programmes of the discipline. We discuss the impact produced by proposals that are both rigorous in terms of content, and also appeal to the development of the human being in an integral manner, within the framework of citizen science activities.
For this research, we have taken into account the uninterrupted development of the NASE programme, which has performed 112 courses in 24 countries throughout the world and in different languages. NASE has involved 4966 secondary teachers in the last eight years.
We describe the history of solar-eclipse supervision since the formation of the International Astronomical Union, as the supervising body morphed from a full commission to a subcommission to its current status as an Inter-Divisional Working Group of the Education, Outreach and Heritage Division and the Sun and Heliosphere Division.
The USA delegation to the July 1919 International Research Council meeting in Brussels included Joel Stebbins, then professor of astronomy and observatory director at the University of Illinois, as secretary of the executive committee appointed by the National Research Council. Stebbins, an avid photographer, documented the travels of their party as the American astronomers attended the meeting and later toured devastated towns, scarred countryside, and battlefields only recently abandoned. Published reports of the meeting afterward attest to the impression left on the American visitors, and the photographs by Stebbins give us a glimpse through their own eyes. Selected photographs, recently discovered in the University of Wisconsin Archives and never before publicly seen, will be presented along with some commentary on their significance for the International Astronomical Union, which took shape at that 1919 meeting.
Even though Italy officially joined the IAU in 1921, Italian astronomers were involved in its birth as early as 1919, when Annibale Riccò, Director of the Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, proposed to the IAU Committee to hold its first General Assembly in Rome. This contribution will analyze the role played by Italian astronomers in the development of the IAU from its foundation to the Second World War. The recent project of reordering of the astronomical historical archives in Italy permits for the first time a more in-depth study of the relations between Italian astronomers and the international scientific community.
The history of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) meetings goes back to 1922 when the first IAU General Assembly (GA) was held in Rome, Italy, following the IAU creation in 1919. However, until 1953, no individual symposia were organized and the GAs were the only official gatherings for astronomers. All together, eight IAU GAs were held during 1922–1952. The IAU Symposium 1 was held in 1953 in Groningen, Netherlands. Starting with 1955, several IAU symposia were regularly held in different places, and since 1959, the IAU also began to organize colloquia to discuss relatively smaller topics. Twenty IAU colloquia numbered as I–XX were held in the period 1959–1971, and another series of IAU colloquia was organized in 1968–2005, numbered as Nos. 1–200. At present IAU symposia are the only official scientific meetings, nine of them being organized every year. IAU S349 “Under One Sky: the IAU Centenary Symposium”, held in Vienna during the IAU GA XXX, was the last one by number in 2018. Thus, the IAU has a 65-year history of symposia and all together 348 such meetings have been held, on average 5–6 annually. At present most of the IAU symposia during the years of GA are being organized in the framework of the GA, there being typically six symposia during each GA. All together, 31 IAU GA have been organized during the years 1922–2018, including 30 regular ones and one Extraordinary GA (1973 in Warsaw, Poland), typically once every three years. Since 1974, the IAU has also organized regional meetings in Europe, Asia and Pacific (APRIM), Latin America (LARIM), and the Middle East and Africa (MEARIM). The European ones were discontinued in 1990 after the creation of the European Astronomical Society (EAS) and the organization of the yearly JENAM/EWASS. The 348 IAU symposia have been organized in 43 countries. We give the statistics of all IAU symposia by year of organization, by various topics of astronomy and astrophysics, and by host countries and cities.