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Weedy rice (WR) (Oryza spp.) is the most troublesome weed infesting rice paddies in Brazil. Several changes have occurred in this region regarding crop management, especially WR control based on the Clearfield® (CL) rice production system launched in 2003. This survey’s objective was to evaluate the WR infestation status by assessing the producers’ perception and the management practices used in southern Brazil after 18 yr of CL use in Brazil. Rice consultants and extension agents distributed a questionnaire to 213 producers in the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) states in the 2018 to 2019 growing season. In RS, most farms are larger than 150 ha, and farmers have adopted the CL system for more than 2 yr and use minimal or conventional tillage, permanent flooding, clomazone PRE tank-mixed with glyphosate at the rice spiking stage, and crop rotation with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] or pasture. In SC, rice farms are small, averaging from 20 to 30 ha, farmers predominantly plant pre-germinated rice and do not rotate rice with other crops, and roguing is practiced. Comparing both states, the CL system is used in 99.5% and 69.3% of the total surveyed rice areas in RS and SC, respectively. Imidazolinone-resistant WR is present in 68.4% and 26.6% of rice farms in RS and SC, respectively. Rice cultivation in Brazil is currently coexisting with WR with minimal integration of control methods. However, integrated practices can control this weed and are fundamental to the sustainability of systems based on herbicide-resistant rice cultivars.
This paper presents a review of the various aeronautical air conditioning systems that are currently available and discusses possible system configurations in the context of the aeronautical environmental control systems. Descriptions of the standard vapor compression cycle and air cycles are provided. The latter includes, simple-cycle, bootstrap-cycle, simple-bootstrap cycle (3-wheel) and condensing cycle (4-wheel). Water separation and air recirculation systems are also explored. A comparison between vapor compression cycles and air cycles is provided, as well as a comparison between different air cycles. Air cycle units are far less efficient than vapor compression cycle units, but they are lighter and more reliable for an equivalent cooling capacity. Details regarding the aircraft conceptual design phase along with general criteria for the selection of an air conditioning system are provided. Additionally, industry trends and technological advances are examined. Conclusions are compiled to guide the systems engineer in the search for the most appropriate design for a particular application.
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
Two new members of the atacamite family were discovered recently in the Sadamisaki Peninsula, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Iyoite, MnCuCl(OH)3, is an Mn-Cu ordered analogue of botallackite, while misakiite, Cu3Mn(OH)6Cl2, is an Mn-rich analogueof kapellasite. Both minerals occur in manganese ore crevices in close association with one another. Iyoite forms radial and dendritic aggregates consisting of pale green, bladed crystals. Misakiite commonly exists in emerald green, tabular, hexagonal crystals. The densities of iyoite andmisakiite were calculated to be 3.22 and 3.42 g cm–3 based on their empirical formulae and powder X-ray diffraction data. Under the same axial setting of botallackite, iyoite is monoclinic, space group P21/m, a = 5.717(2), b = 6.586(2), c= 5.623(3) Å, β = 88.45(3)° and V = 211.63(15) Å3. Misakiite is trigonal, space group P3m1, with a = 6.4156(4), c = 5.7026(5) Å and V = 203.27(3) Å3. The structures of both mineralsare classified as layer type and the two are closely related. These new minerals were formed by the reaction between seawater and naturally-occurring manganese ores including native copper. These minerals are challenging to produce synthetically. Misakiite was synthesized successfully usinga hydrothermal method, while iyoite could not be made.
Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck is rare and has unique histopathological characteristics that make it difficult to diagnose and treat. In this report, the Japanese Lung Cancer Treatment Guidelines were adapted to treat three patients with small cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and outcomes evaluated.
There was one case each of stage I small cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity, stage IV-B small cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus, and stage IV-A small cell carcinoma of the submandibular gland. All patients underwent chemoradiotherapy and achieved a partial response.
Only case one underwent surgery after chemoradiotherapy; 31 months after treatment, this patient had suffered no recurrence. Case two died three months after treatment due to bone marrow metastasis. Case three had experienced no progression after 12 months of follow up.
In this small patient series, short-term results were equivalent to or better than usual treatment outcomes for small cell carcinoma of the lung.
The new mineral, vanadoallanite-(La), found in the stratiform ferromanganese deposit from the Shobu area, Ise City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, was studied using electron microprobe analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Vanadoallanite-(La) is a rare-earth element-rich monoclinic epidote-supergroup mineral with simplified formula CaLaV3+AlFe2+(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH) (Z = 2, space group P21/m) characterized by predominantly V3+ at one of three octahedral sites, M1. The crystal studied shows large V (∼8.4 V2O3 wt.%), Fe (∼13.8 Fe2O3 wt.%; Fe2+/total Fe = 0.58) and Mn (∼8.8 MnO wt.%) contents. A small amount of Ti is also present (∼1.3 TiO2 wt.%). Structural refinement converged to R1 = 2.96%. The unit-cell parameters are a = 8.8985(2), b = 5.7650(1), c = 10.1185(2) Å, β = 114.120(1)° and V = 473.76(2) Å3. The cation distributions determined at A1,A2 and M3 are Ca0.61Mn0.39, (La0.46Ce0.14Pr0.07Nd0.18)Σ0.85Ca0.15 and Fe2+0.56Mn2+0.30Mg0.06V3+0.05Fe3+0.03, respectively. On the other hand, depending on Ti assignment, two different schemes of the cation distribution at M1 and M2 can be considered: (1) M1(V3+0.58Fe3+0.34Ti4+0.08) M2(Al0.92Fe3+0.08), and (2) M1(V3+0.58Fe3+0.42)M2(Al0.92Ti4+0.08). In both cases, the dominant cations at A1, A2, M1, M2 and M3 are Ca, La, V3+, Al and Fe2+ , respectively. According to ionic radius, Ti4+ possibly prefers M2 rather than Fe3+. A large Mn2+ content at A1 also characterizes our vanadoallanite-(La). The structural change of Mn2+-rich allanite-group minerals is considered to be controlled by two main factors. One is the large Mn2+ content at A1 in vanadoallanite-(La), which modifies the topology of the A1O9 polyhedron. The other is the expansion of M3O6 and M1O6 octahedra caused by large octahedral cations, such as Fe2+ and Mn2+, at M3 and the trivalent transition elements, V3+ and Fe3+, at M1.
The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter
limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The
10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D
fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks
and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential
benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and
particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is
Smoking has been positively and fruit and vegetable intake has been negatively associated with cervical cancer, the second most common cancer among women worldwide. However, a lower consumption of fruits and reduced serum carotenoids have been observed among smokers. It is not known whether the smoking effect on the risk of cervical neoplasia is modified by a low intake of fruits and vegetables. The present study examined the combined effects of tobacco smoking and diet using a validated FFQ and serum carotenoid and tocopherol levels on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) risk in a hospital-based case–control study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2003 and 2005. The sample comprised 231 incident, histologically confirmed cases of CIN3 and 453 controls. A low intake ( ≤ 39 g) of dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables and fruits without tobacco smoking had a lesser effect on CIN3 (OR 1·14; 95 % CI 0·49, 2·65) than among smokers with higher intake ( ≥ 40 g; OR 1·83; 95 % CI 0·73, 4·62) after adjusting for confounders. The OR for the joint exposure of tobacco smoking and low intake of vegetables and fruits was greater (3·86; 95 % CI 1·74, 8·57; P for trend < 0·001) compared with non-smokers with higher intake after adjusting for confounding variables and human papillomavirus status. Similar results were observed for total fruit, serum total carotene (including β-, α- and γ-carotene) and tocopherols. These findings suggest that the effect of nutritional factors on CIN3 is modified by smoking.
Avian rotaviruses were isolated from feral pigeon faeces treated with trypsin using roller tube cultures of mammalian cells. Two pigeon strains, designated as strains PO-8 and PO-13, produced a marked cytopathic effect (CPE), small intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and high titres of infectious particles in infected MA-104 and MDBK cell lines without cell adaptation and roller drum apparatus. The pigeon rotaviruses shared a common group specific antigen with the Lincoln strain of bovine rotavirus by indirect immunofluorescence, but differed from both the Lincoln strain and the Wa strain of human rotavirus in neutralization tests.
The RNA segment profile of this virus on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis differed from that of group A mammalian rotaviruses. The results of a serological survey suggested that antibody to pigeon rotaviruses was widespread in avian species in Japan.
We surveyed emm genotypes of group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates from patients with severe invasive streptococcal infections during 2001–2005 and compared their prevalence with that of the preceding 5 years. Genotype emm1 remained dominant throughout 2001 to 2005, but the frequency rate of this type decreased compared with the earlier period. Various other emm types have appeared in recent years indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing severe invasive streptococcal infections. The cover of the new 26-valent GAS vaccine fell from 93·5% for genotypes of isolates from 1996–2000 to 81·8% in 2001–2005.
The characteristic features of a two-sign point vortex system in positive and negative temperature states are examined by massive numerical simulations using MDGRAPE-2. The temperature is determined by a density of states for a microcanonical ensemble consisting of randomly generated $10^7$ states. Since the density of states has a single peak, the system has negative temperature states. The distributions of vortices in time-asymptotic equilibrium states in positive and negative temperature are obtained by time-development simulations. In positive temperature, both-sign vortices mix with each other and neutralize. In negative temperature, part of the vortices condense and form clumps exclusively consisting of the same-sign vortices, while the other part of the vortices distribute uniformly outside the clumps. It is found that the vortices inside the clumps gain energy and the vortices outside the clumps lose energy to keep the total energy constant. This suggests the common and essential role of the background vortices in the energy-conserving system that assists the formation of the clumps as well as the crystallization and generation of the symmetric configuration observed in the non-neutral plasma experiments.
A neutral beam injection (NBI) into a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is simulated by the electron-fluid and ion-particle method. The neutral beam particle is injected tangentially to the field-null circle, and the simulation is done on a two-dimensional cross section of the FRC. An initial equilibrium state is obtained from the Grad–Shafranov equation including the beam current term. It is found that the start of radial ion flow is delayed by the NBI.