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The last few years have witnessed an increase in democratic “backsliding” in the United States—a decline in the quality of democracy, typically accompanied by an influx of non-normative behavior, such as political violence. Despite the real consequences of support for violence, fairly little is known about such an extremist attitude outside studies of terrorism or aggression. Using a unique survey containing many psychological, political, and social characteristics, we find that perceived victimhood, authoritarianism, populism, and white identity are the most powerful predictors of support for violence, though military service, conspiratorial thinking, anxiety, and feelings of powerlessness are also related. These patterns suggest that subjective feelings about being unjustly victimized—irrespective of the truth of the matter—and the psychological baggage that accompanies such feelings lie at the heart of support for violence. We use these results to build a profile of characteristics that explain support for violence; the predictive validity of this profile is then tested by examining its relationship with support for the January 6, 2021, U.S. Capitol riot, with which it is strongly associated, even accounting for support for Donald Trump. Our findings have implications for the detection of extremist attitudes and our understanding of the non-partisan/ideological foundations of anti-social political behavior.
Monoclonal antibody therapeutics to treat coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). Many barriers exist when deploying a novel therapeutic during an ongoing pandemic, and it is critical to assess the needs of incorporating monoclonal antibody infusions into pandemic response activities. We examined the monoclonal antibody infusion site process during the COVID-19 pandemic and conducted a descriptive analysis using data from 3 sites at medical centers in the United States supported by the National Disaster Medical System. Monoclonal antibody implementation success factors included engagement with local medical providers, therapy batch preparation, placing the infusion center in proximity to emergency services, and creating procedures resilient to EUA changes. Infusion process challenges included confirming patient severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity, strained staff, scheduling, and pharmacy coordination. Infusion sites are effective when integrated into pre-existing pandemic response ecosystems and can be implemented with limited staff and physical resources.
This study aimed to determine the incidence of laryngeal penetration and aspiration in elderly patients who underwent supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy for laryngeal cancer.
A retrospective analysis of dynamic videofluoroscopic swallowing studies was performed in patients who had received supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy as a treatment for laryngeal cancers. Digital analysis of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies included measurements of displacement and timing related to swallowing safety.
Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies from 52 patients were analysed. All participants were male and over 65 years old. Studies were performed five years after surgery. Among 52 videofluoroscopic swallowing studies, analysis showed that elevated pharyngeal constriction ratio (pharyngeal constriction ratio more than 0.0875, odds ratio = 5.2, p = 0.016), reduced pharyngoesophageal sphincter opening time (pharyngoesophageal sphincter open less than 0.6 seconds, odds ratio = 11.6, p = 0.00018) and reduced airway closure time (airway close less than 0.6 seconds, odds ratio = 10.6, p = 0.00057) were significantly associated with aspiration.
Deteriorated pharyngeal constriction, shortened airway closure and reduced pharyngoesophageal sphincter opening time are key factors for predicting laryngeal penetration or aspiration after supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Recent work on political divisions in the mass public has identified several manifestations of polarization linked to different types of attitudes, orientations, and behaviors. Of these, affective polarization and perceived polarization have attracted increasing attention, though we still know fairly little of the links between these variants of polarization. In this paper, we examine the association between affective and perceived polarization, with an aim toward disentangling any potential causal relationship between the two processes. Using two sets of nationally representative panel data from 1992 to 1996 and 2008 to 2009, we find evidence that affective polarization causes perceived polarization, and that perceived polarization is not related to future affective polarization. Stratifying the models by level of political information, we find that the strength and statistical significance of the relationships between past and future values of affective and perceived polarization are conditional on political sophistication: more sophisticated individuals exhibit stronger relationships.
Germ plasm, a cytoplasmic factor of germline cell differentiation, is suggested to be a perspective tool for in vitro meiotic differentiation. To discriminate between the: (1) germ plasm-related structures (GPRS) involved in meiosis triggering; and (2) GPRS involved in the germ plasm storage phase, we investigated gametogenesis in the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. The GPRS of the mitosis-to-meiosis period are similar in males and females. In both sexes, five events typically occur: (1) turning of the primary Vasa-positive germ plasm granules into the Vasa-positive intermitochondrial cement (IMC); (2) aggregation of some mitochondria by IMC followed by arising of mitochondrial clusters; (3) intramitochondrial localization of IMC-originated Vasa; followed by (4) mitochondrial cluster degradation; and (5) intranuclear localization of Vasa followed by this protein entering the nuclei (gonial cells) and synaptonemal complexes (zygotene–pachytene meiotic cells). In post-zygotene/pachytene gametogenesis, the GPRS are sex specific; the Vasa-positive chromatoid bodies are found during spermatogenesis, but oogenesis is characterized by secondary arising of Vasa-positive germ plasm granules followed by secondary formation and degradation of mitochondrial clusters. A complex type of germ plasm generation, ‘the follicle cell assigned germ plasm formation’, was found in late oogenesis. The mechanisms discovered are recommended to be taken into account for possible reconstruction of those under in vitro conditions.
We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
The Rank Forum on Vitamin D was held on 2nd and 3rd July 2009 at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. The workshop consisted of a series of scene-setting presentations to address the current issues and challenges concerning vitamin D and health, and included an open discussion focusing on the identification of the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a marker of vitamin D status) that may be regarded as optimal, and the implications this process may have in the setting of future dietary reference values for vitamin D in the UK. The Forum was in agreement with the fact that it is desirable for all of the population to have a serum 25(OH)D concentration above 25 nmol/l, but it discussed some uncertainty about the strength of evidence for the need to aim for substantially higher concentrations (25(OH)D concentrations>75 nmol/l). Any discussion of ‘optimal’ concentration of serum 25(OH)D needs to define ‘optimal’ with care since it is important to consider the normal distribution of requirements and the vitamin D needs for a wide range of outcomes. Current UK reference values concentrate on the requirements of particular subgroups of the population; this differs from the approaches used in other European countries where a wider range of age groups tend to be covered. With the re-emergence of rickets and the public health burden of low vitamin D status being already apparent, there is a need for urgent action from policy makers and risk managers. The Forum highlighted concerns regarding the failure of implementation of existing strategies in the UK for achieving current vitamin D recommendations.
The effects of small concentrations of metallic impurities have been studied in conjunction with the formation of titanium disilicide. We report that, by introducing small quantities of a refractory metal such as molybdenum or tungsten at or near the titanium/silicon interface, the temperature required to form the C54 phase TiSi2 can be reduced by as much as 100°C. Furthermore, the resulting C54-TiSi2 film exhibits small (∼ 0.2μm) grain size and improved thermal stability. This discovery has the potential to reduce the complexity and cost associated with forming low resistivity TiSi2 on submicron structures and to significantly improve the titanium silicide process window for future sub-half-micron VLSI applications.
This study describes polymorphism in Theileria annulata, an intracellular protozoan parasite of bovine leucocytes and red blood cells. Fifty-three different stocks of T. annulata, isolated from 17 sites (districts) in Tunisia, have been characterized by anti-parasite monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivity, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) isoenzyme electrophoresis, and Southern blotting with two genomic DNA probes. There appears to be considerable diversity amongst T. annulata stocks from Tunisia, no two isolates being identical, even those from animals on the same farm. Two distinct antigenic populations were detected by MAb 7E7. They were defined by negative and positive cells in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The percentage of positive cells in different isolates ranged between 0 and 100%. The population variation seen by GPI analysis and DNA probes was greater; 7 different GPI phenotypes were identified amongst the stocks studied, while DNA probes T. annulata Tunis (TaT) 17 and 21 detected up to 5 different variants. The majority of isolates were shown to contain more than one parasite population, the number of variants per isolate ranging from 1 to 4. No correlation between particular parasite phenotypes or genotypes and their geographical site of isolation was observed. Selection of parasite populations in vivo and in vitro is also discussed.
Recent progress on the use of molecular engineering approaches for the enhancement and spectral tuning of the optical limiting responses of phthalocyanine complexes is presented. Examples are given involving the use of the heavy-atom approach to enhance the limiting response of naphthalocyanines and of donor substitution of naphthalocyanines to red shift the optical limiting response, as demonstrated for indium and tin octabutoxynaphthalocyanines. These approaches have led to new materials for optical limiting with potential for high performance. An experimental demonstration of the “bottleneck” limiter concept, in which the optical-limiting material is distributed nonhomogeneously to permit strong pumping of excited-state population throughout the interaction region, is presented and shows an order-of-magnitude increase in pulse suppression compared to a homogeneous distribution, without an increase in linear absorbance.
Recent progress in the field of liquid crystal materials and oriented polymers studied by nearfield scanned probe microscopies (SPM) is presented here. The investigations were focused on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) results of antiferroelectric liquid crystalline molecules observed at different elevated temperatures corresponding to different bulk mesophases of the material, and on surface morphological studies of a liquid crystalline polymer by scanning force microscopy (SFM). In the field of oriented thermoplastic polymers, SFM images of the morphology and molecular packing in the outermost surface of poly(butene-1) films are presented.
Little has been published about Te-rich ZnSexTel−x grown at low temperatures, in spite of some successes in the fabrication of wide band gap light emitting devices from ZnSeTe alloys grown at higher temperatures. We present x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for ZnSeTe epilayers and ZnSeTe/ZnTe superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). These we compare with measurements on ZnTe, ZnSe and CdZnTe epilayers and on CdZnTe/ZnTe superlattices grown under similar conditions and also with data published for ZnSeTe alloys grown at high temperatures. Equilibrium phase diagrams for the ZnSeTe alloy system suggest a large miscibility gap at MBE growth temperatures; this may account for some unusual features in the (PL) spectra and for large line widths in the x-ray data. In spite of these possible miscibility problems, we find that ZnSeTe alloys luminesce brightly.
Five experiments, involving 37 varieties, were carried out over three seasons to estimate the increase in yield potential in spring barley achieved by plant breeding during the last 100 years. Most of the important spring barley varieties grown in Britain between 1880 and 1980 were represented. In three experiments disease was controlled by a fungicide while in the other two experiments fungicide application was a main treatment. To prevent yield loss due to lodging, plants were supported as a main treatment in two trials.
In all experiments most of the modern varieties yielded more than the older ones. The genetic gain in yield was 0·39% per year during the 100-year period and 0·84% per year between 1953 and 1980.
Modern varieties had higher grain yields, shorter straw, and higher harvest index denned as the proportion of grain dry weight to total above-ground dry weight; more of the tillers they produced survived to give ears. There was a weak association between biological yield (total above-ground dry weight) and grain yield.
It is suggested that although much of the improvement in yield described here could be attributed to increased harvest index, the scope for further improvement in this character may be limited. Further yield improvements might be achieved by combining high biological yield with high harvest index.
The following work embodying researches coming within the scope of this commission has been published since the last meeting of the Union: La Planète Mercure et la Rotation des Satellites, by E. M. Antoniadi; Gauthier-Villars, Paris.
In addition to references to the work of other astronomers the author gives a summary of his own observations with the 0.83 m. refractor at Meudon and his conclusions.
The following Memoirs or papers not specifically referred to in the body of the Report have also been published since the last meeting of the Union: Cometa Halley. Vol. xxv of Resultados del Observatorio Nacional Argentino. This is a monograph on the Comet at its 1910 return. By C. D. Perrine. Les Comètes en 1930,1931 et 1932. By F. Baldet. (L’ Astronomie 46,497 et 48,175.) I Fondamenti Psicologici dell’ Indagine Visuale. By M. Maggini. (Memorie dellaSoc. Astron. Italiana, Vol. VIII, 2.) Théorie Photométrique des Eclipses de Lune. By F. M. Link. (Bulletin Astronomique,
8 fase. 11.) Relative Lunar Heights and Topography by means of the Motion Picture Negative.
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