The mechanisms controlling the coronary vascular responses of vessels perfusing the left ventricular (LV) myocardium that is hypertrophied from chronic volume overload are unclear. We hypothesised that endothelial function is compromised, and receptor-mediated contraction is exacerbated, in coronary resistance vessels from rabbits with LV hypertrophy compared to controls. The mitral valve of 10 rabbits was damaged surgically to cause mitral regurgitation and chronic volume overload, resulting in LV hypertrophy (LV hypertrophy rabbits). Echocardiographic assessment at 12 weeks verified that mitral regurgitation was present in LV hypertrophy but not sham-operated, weight- and age-matched animals (control rabbits; n = 17). Percentage increases from weeks 0 to 12 in LV cross-sectional area (47 ± 7 % vs. 2 ± 8 %), LV volume (47 ± 14 % vs. 7 ± 10 %) and LV mass (27 ± 4 % vs. 3 ± 6 %), were greater (all P < 0.05) in LV hypertrophy vs. control rabbits, respectively. At 12 weeks, coronary resistance vessel (~ 130 µm, internal diameter) reactivity was evaluated using wire myography. Endothelium-dependent (i.e. acetylcholine, 10-8-10-5 M) and -independent (i.e. sodium nitroprusside, 10-9-10-4 M) relaxation, and receptor-mediated vasocontraction (i.e. endothelin-1, 10-11-10-7 M) were similar between groups. However, tension development in response to nitric oxide synthase inhibition (10-6 M N G-monomethyl-L-arginine) was greater (P < 0.05) in LV hypertrophy compared to control rabbits. These results indicate that while coronary resistance vessel function is similar between groups, our estimate of basal nitric oxide production is greater in vessels from LV hypertrzophy than control rabbits. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.6, 725-732.