The nuclei of ULIRGs harbor massive young stars, an accreting central black hole, or both. Results are presented for molecular gas that is exposed to X-rays (1–100 keV, XDRs) and far-ultraviolet radiation (6–13.6 eV, PDRs). Attention is paid to species like HCO+, HCN, HNC, OH, H2O and CO. Line ratios of HCN/HCO+ and HNC/HCN discriminate between PDRs and XDRs. Very high J (>10) CO lines, observable with HIFI/Herschel, discriminate very well between XDRs and PDRs. In XDRs, it is easy to produce large abundances of warm (T > 100 k) H2O and OH. In PDRs, only OH is produced similarly well.