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To evaluate age-related differences in the independent/combined association of added sugar intake from soda and body adiposity with hyperuricaemia in gender-stratified US adults.
Consumption of added sugar from soda was calculated from 24-h dietary interviews and categorised into none, regular and excessive consumption. Hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid levels >417 mmol/l in men and >357 mmol/l in women. Multiple regression models with interaction terms and logistic models adjusted for covariates were conducted under survey-data modules.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2007–2016.
15 338 adults without gout, failing kidneys, an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 or diabetes were selected.
The age-stratified prevalence rate of hyperuricaemia was 18·8–20·4 % in males and 6·8–17·3 % in females. Hyperuricaemia prevalence of approximately 50 % was observed in young and middle age males who consumed excessive added sugar from soda. Excessive added sugar intake was observed to be associated with 1·5- to 2·0-fold and 2·0- to 2·3-fold increased risk of the probability of hyperuricaemia in young and middle age males and middle age females, respectively. Study participants, regardless of age or gender, who were obese and consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of having hyperuricaemia.
Our study revealed that the association between hyperuricaemia and consumption of excessive added sugar from soda may vary by age and gender. Obese adults who consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of hyperuricaemia, a finding that was found across all age-specific groups for both genders.
It is unclear if mild-to-moderate dehydration independently affects mood without confounders like heat exposure or exercise. This study examined the acute effect of cellular dehydration on mood. Forty-nine adults (55 % female, age 39 (sd 8) years) were assigned to counterbalanced, crossover trials. Intracellular dehydration was induced with 2-h (0·1 ml/kg per min) 3 % hypertonic saline (HYPER) infusion or 0·9 % isotonic saline (ISO) as a control. Plasma osmolality increased in HYPER (pre 285 (sd 3), post 305 (sd 4) mmol/kg; P < 0·05) but remained unchanged in ISO (pre 285 (sd 3), post 288 (sd 3) mmol/kg; P > 0·05). Mood was assessed with the short version of the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS). The POMS sub-scale (confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia) increased in HYPER compared with ISO (P < 0·05). Total mood disturbance score (TMD) assessed by POMS increased from 10·3 (sd 0·9) to 16·6 (sd 1·7) in HYPER (P < 0·01), but not in ISO (P > 0·05). When TMD was stratified by sex, the increase in the HYPER trial was significant in females (P < 0·01) but not in males (P > 0·05). Following infusion, thirst and copeptin (surrogate for vasopressin) were also higher in females than in males (21·3 (sd 2·0), 14·1 (sd 1·4) pmol/l; P < 0·01) during HYPER. In conclusion, cellular dehydration acutely degraded specific aspects of mood mainly in women. The mechanisms underlying sex differences may be related to elevated thirst and vasopressin.
In the current absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, public health responses aim to break the chain of infection by focusing on the mode of transmission. We reviewed the current evidence on the transmission dynamics and on pathogenic and clinical features of COVID-19 to critically identify any gaps in the current infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines.
In this study, we reviewed global COVID-19 IPC guidelines by organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Guidelines from 2 high-income countries (Australia and United Kingdom) and from 1 middle-income country (China) were also reviewed. We searched publications in English on ‘PubMed’ and Google Scholar. We extracted information related to COVID-19 transmission dynamics, clinical presentations, and exposures that may facilitate transmission. We then compared these findings with the recommended IPC measures.
Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings occurs through droplets, aerosols, and the oral–fecal or fecal–droplet route. However, the IPC guidelines fail to cover all transmission modes, and the recommendations also conflict with each other. Most guidelines recommend surgical masks for healthcare providers during routine care and N95 respirators for aerosol-generating procedures. However, recommendations regarding the type of face mask varied, and the CDC recommends cloth masks when surgical masks are unavailable.
IPC strategies should consider all the possible routes of transmission and should target all patient care activities involving risk of person-to-person transmission. This review may assist international health agencies in updating their guidelines.
Cannabis is the world's most widely used illicit drug. It can impair verbal learning and induce psychosis, both acutely and possibly following long term use. But, where cannabis acts in the brain to impair verbal learning and induce psychotic symptoms is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify how one of the main psychoactive ingredients of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) acts on the brain to impair verbal learning and induce psychotic symptoms.
15 healthy males with minimal exposure to cannabis, were studied on 2 occasions approximately 1 month apart, following oral administration of 10mg of THC or placebo 1 hour prior to scanning, in a double-blind design. MR images were acquired on a 1.5T GE camera while subjects performed a Verbal paired associates task with separate encoding followed by retrieval conditions, with the conditions repeated in the same sequence 4 times. We examined the main effects of drug, task and drug- task interactions.
Administration of THC abolished the normal linear decrement in parahippocampal activation across successive encoding blocks and was associated with a trend for impaired word recall. Administration of THC also altered the normal time-dependent change in ventral striatal activation during retrieval of word pairs which was directly correlated with concurrently induced psychotic symptoms.
These results suggest that impairment in learning and verbal memory associated with cannabis use may be mediated through its action in the medial temporal cortex while psychotic symptoms may be induced through its action in the ventral striatum.
There is considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of Cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant component of Cannabis. While delta-9-THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, impairs memory and induces anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely and increases the risk of psychotic disorders in regular cannabis users, CBD does not impair memory, may have anxiolytic and possibly antipsychotic effects. Hence, we compared directly the acute neural effects of these two active ingredients of cannabis, by combining pharmacological challenge with fMRI. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design and oral challenge with 10mg of delta-9-THC, 600mg of CBD or placebo in 15 healthy volunteers, we examined whether delta-9-THC and CBD have opposing effects on the neural substrates of verbal memory and fear processing and whether they also have opposing effects on the neural substrates of anxiety and psychotic symptoms induced by delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC induced anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely while there was a trend for a reduction in anxiety but no change in psychotic symptoms with CBD. During the memory task, delta-9-THC attenuated and CBD increased activation in the striatum bilaterally. Effect of delta-9-THC on striatal activation was inversely correlated with the psychotic symptoms induced by it concomitantly. During the processing of fearful faces, delta-9-THC increased and CBD attenuated activation in the amygdala and these effects correlated with their anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects respectively. These opposing effects of CBD on the key neural substrates for psychotic symptoms and anxiety induced by delta-9-THC may suggest its possible therapeutic role in countering these conditions.
Assess effects of antidepressant compliance on healthcare and workplace costs.
Using workplace survey data for 2 large employers’ healthcare claims (2004-2006), patient selection criteria considered depression diagnosis and antidepressant claims history. Employed respondents working in the past month were categorized by Medication Possession Ratio into compliance groups by quartiles; bottom/top quartiles were defined as compliant/non-compliant. Direct (medical/drug) costs were measured as insurer payments to providers; indirect (absenteeism/presenteeism) costs were based on one-month recall of workplace performance (hours worked/missed, self-rated performance), estimated as (hours missed x self-reported hourly income). Annualized, inflation-adjusted (2006) costs were compared between compliant/non-compliant groups using multivariate models controlling for baseline characteristics. Analyses were conducted for all patients and a subsample of diagnosed depression patients.
Among all patients (n=1,224), medical costs were numerically lower for compliant vs. non-compliant patients ($4,857 vs. $5,926, p=0.221); drug costs were significantly higher for compliant patients ($2,329 vs. $1,570, p=0.001). Indirect costs were not statistically different between compliant/non-compliant patients ($22,278 vs. $20,714, p=0.237). Among the depression subgroup (N=488), medical costs were numerically lower for compliant vs. non-compliant patients ($5,005 vs. $7,630, p=0.152) while drug costs were numerically higher for compliant patients ($2,550 vs. $1,829, p=0.153). Absenteeism costs were 30% lower for compliant patients ($7,725 vs. $11,040, p=0.038); presenteeism costs were not significantly different ($19,079 vs. $17,457, p=0.441).
Absenteeism costs decrease significantly with compliance among depressed patients as do medical costs (not significantly). Further research is warranted regarding reason for poor antidepressant compliance and influence of compliance on costs.
The study sought to examine the neurophysiological effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the emotional processing using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).
Fifteen healthy male participants (age range 18-35) with a lifetime exposure to cannabis of 15 times or less were recruited in a double blind event-related fMRI design. Prior to each scanning session, participants were given an oral dose of either 600mg CBD or a placebo. The blood levels of drugs were monitored via an intravenous line, while systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (beats per minute) were recorded manually. During the scan, subjects were presented with 10 different facial identities, each identity expressing 50% or 100% intensities of fear or a neutral expression. Neuropsychological performance and symptoms ratings were recorded at baseline, immediately before scanning (1 hr), immediately after scanning (2 hr), and one hour post scanning (3 hr).
CBD had no significant effect on the gender discrimination task. Reaction times were significantly faster when processing 100% fearful faces than compared to 50% fearful and neutral faces. CBD had a significant effect on brain activation in response to faces with emotional expressions, decreasing activation in the right posterior cingulate gyrus and in the right cerebellum, when compared to placebo. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect was observed. In the right cingulate gyrus CBD attenuated activation during the processing of intense fearful faces but had no effect of neural response to neutral or mild fearful faces.
CBD significantly modulates the neurophysiological response associated with anxiety.
Neurodevelopment is sensitive to genetic and pre/postnatal environmental influences. These effects are likely mediated by epigenetic factors, yet current knowledge is limited. Longitudinal twin studies can delineate the link between genetic and environmental factors, epigenetic state at birth and neurodevelopment later in childhood. Building upon our study of the Peri/postnatal Epigenetic Twin Study (PETS) from gestation to 6 years of age, here we describe the PETS 11-year follow-up in which we will use neuroimaging and cognitive testing to examine the relationship between early-life environment, epigenetics and neurocognitive outcomes in mid-childhood. Using a within-pair twin model, the primary aims are to (1) identify early-life epigenetic correlates of neurocognitive outcomes; (2) determine the developmental stability of epigenetic effects and (3) identify modifiable environmental risk factors. Secondary aims are to identify factors influencing gut microbiota between 6 and 11 years of age to investigate links between gut microbiota and neurodevelopmental outcomes in mid-childhood. Approximately 210 twin pairs will undergo an assessment at 11 years of age. This includes a direct child cognitive assessment, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging, biological sampling, anthropometric measurements and a range of questionnaires on health and development, behavior, dietary habits and sleeping patterns. Data from complementary data sources, including the National Assessment Program — Literacy and Numeracy and the Australian Early Development Census, will also be sought. Following on from our previous focus on relationships between growth, cardiovascular health and oral health, this next phase of PETS will significantly advance our understanding of the environmental interactions that shape the developing brain.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Clinical guidelines recommend using predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk to inform treatment decisions. The objective was to compare the contribution of changes in modifiable risk factors Versus aging to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Prospective follow-up of the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort, at visit 1 (2000–2004) and visit 3 (2009–2012). Analyses included 1115 African-American participants without a high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk (<7.5%), hypertension, diabetes, or ASCVD at visit 1. We used the Pooled Cohort equations to calculate the incidence of high (≥7.5%) 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3. We recalculated the percentage with a high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3 assuming each risk factor [age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), antihypertensive medication use, diabetes, smoking, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol], one at a time, did not change from visit 1. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The mean age at visit 1 was 45.2±9.5 years. Overall, 30.9% (95% CI 28.3%–33.4%) of participants developed high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. Aging accounted for 59.7% (95% CI 54.2%–65.1%) of the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk compared with 32.8% (95% CI 27.0%–38.2%) for increases in SBP or antihypertensive medication initiation and 12.8% (95% CI 9.6%–16.5%) for incident diabetes. Among participants <50 years, the contribution of increases in SBP or antihypertensive medication initiation was similar to aging. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increases in SBP and antihypertensive medication initiation are major contributors to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk in African Americans, particularly among younger adults.
Immigrants and their children who return to their country of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR) are at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases compared to other travellers. VFR travel is an important disease control issue, as one quarter of Australia's population are foreign-born and one quarter of departing Australian international travellers are visiting friends and relatives. We conducted a 1-year prospective enhanced surveillance study in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia to determine the contribution of VFR travel to notifiable diseases associated with travel, including typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya. Additional data on characteristics of international travel were collected. Recent international travel was reported by 180/222 (81%) enhanced surveillance cases, including all malaria, chikungunya and paratyphoid cases. The majority of cases who acquired infections during travel were immigrant Australians (96, 53%) or their Australian-born children (43, 24%). VFR travel was reported by 117 (65%) travel-associated cases, highest for typhoid (31/32, 97%). Cases of children (aged <18 years) (86%) were more frequently VFR travellers compared to adult travellers (57%, P < 0·001). VFR travel is an important contributor to imported disease in Australia. Communicable disease control strategies targeting these travellers, such as targeted health promotion, are likely to impact importation of these travel-related infections.
The SIESTA magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium code has been used to compute a sequence of ideally stable equilibria resulting from numerical variation of the helical resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) applied to an axisymmetric DIII-D plasma equilibrium. Increasing the perturbation strength at the dominant
resonant surface leads to lower MHD energies and increases in the equilibrium island widths at the
(and sidebands) surfaces, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Island overlap at large perturbation strengths leads to stochastic magnetic fields which correlate well with the experimentally inferred field structure. The magnitude and spatial phase (around the dominant rational surfaces) of the resonant (shielding) component of the parallel current are shown to change qualitatively with the magnetic island topology.