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Atom probe tomography (APT) has been established in the microscopic chemical and spatial analysis of metallic or semiconductors nanostructures. In recent years, and especially with the development of a transfer shuttle system and adapted preparation protocols, the field of frozen liquids has been opened up. Still, very limited knowledge is available about the evaporation and fragmentation behavior of frozen liquids in APT. In this work, efforts were made to extend the method toward organic and biological soft matter, which are mostly built from hydrocarbon chains, the evaporation and fragmentation behavior of simple alkane chains (n-tetradecanes). Tetradecane shows a very complex evaporation behavior whereby peaks of C1–C15 can be observed. Based on multihit events and the representation of these in correlation plots, more detailed information about the evaporation behavior and the decay of molecules into smaller fragments in the region near the tip can be studied. A variety of different dissociation tracks of larger molecules in their excited state and their subsequent decay in low-field regions, on the way to the detector, could be observed and the dissociation zone in the low-field region was calculated.
In this paper, we introduce the Team Effectiveness Model for Science (TEMS) and describe a multiphase set of interventions for forming a new team or developing an existing team. TEMS uses a shared mutual learning mindset as the model’s central and guiding element. It shows how team mindset leads to behavior and to results and how this affects the characteristics of effective team functioning. TEMS addresses two related questions: What are the variables that contribute to effective teams? and How do the variables need to be designed to make their relevant contributions? Team models often answer the first question without fully answering the second. By addressing three gaps, TEMS contributes to enhancing science team effectiveness. Gap 1 is the absence of explicit core values, assumptions, and norms that serve as the foundation for developing and maintaining science team effectiveness. Gap 2 is the absence of a process for integrating the science and relationship aspects of a science team. Gap 3 is the absence of team processes and structures that are derived from the team’s values, assumptions, and norms. Using TEMS to design new or intervene with existing teams focuses on shifting mindset, developing behavioral skills, and designing processes and structures congruent with the new mindset.
The involvement of immune mechanism in psychiatric disorders was proposed in macrophage theories of depression and schizophrenia. Later, the involvement of the inflammatory related changes beyond the cytokines including the interaction between inflammatory response system and neurotransmitters was considered in pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The neurodegeneration hypothesis of depression stressed the importance of imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that leads to another imbalance in neuroprotective kynurenic acid arm and neurodegenerative 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid arm of the tryptophan catabolic pathway.
A series of studies on human plasma and CSF changes and their associations to clinical symptoms and response to treatment and certain SNPs polymorphisms were carried out. Some studies were also done in cell culture system and post mortem morphology.
It was observed that the neuroprotective, kynurenic acid was significantly lower and one of the neurodegenerative metabolites 3-hydroxykynurenine was significantly higher in the plasma of drug naïve depressed patients. The plasma kynurenic acid concentration and neuroprotective ratio gave clear discrimination between the patients and controls with reasonable sensitivity and the specificity. The CSF findings showed similar direction. The findings were also supported by the findings from SNPs polymorphism and post-mortem studies.
The major depressive disorder is associated with imbalanced immune-metabolic-neurochemical systems.
Mild immune activation is well documented in major depressive disorders. The imbalance in kynurenines in the plasma of patients with MDD was also reported. However, how the blood cells of the patients would respond to external challenge and what would be the effects of different antidepressants is still needed to be explored.
Material and methods
Altogether 20 patients and 40 age and gender matched healthy controls are recruited. Interviews were performed with HAM-D17 and early morning blood was withdrawn. Serum was separated and whole blood culture and peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture were performed with and without stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PolyI:C to activate TLR-4 and TLR-3 respectively. The cytokines and kynurenines are measured in supernatants and serum.
The LPS showed clear immune activation whereas PolyI:C showed various responses. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor showed advantage in controlling immune activation induced by TLR-4 stimulation. The tryptophan breakdown showed higher in depressed patients.
The immune activation is enhanced in depressed patients and SSRIs showed advantage in controlling immune activation. The details interaction between TLRs and antidepressants in depression will be discussed.
Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7–12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13–18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care.
The number of beds in forensic psychiatry has increased more than two-fold since 1990 in many countries, mostly due to an increasing number of admitted male patients with psychotic disorders. Most of these patients had previous admissions to general psychiatric units.
To develop a manual for interventions aiming on the prevention of violence based on cognitive behavioural therapy and to test its feasibility.
A manual comprising of 11 different domains of possible interventions was developed. For each patient, the three most relevant domains should be identified. A pilot study was conducted in two psychiatric hospitals. Included patients should receive two sessions as in-patients and consecutively three more as out-patients.
Out of 368 male patients with a diagnosis of a schizophrenic or schizoaffective disorder, 89 (24.2%) had a relevant history of violence. Only 15 (17%) could be recruited for the study, 13 (14.6% of eligible patients) completed the intervention. A considerable proportion refused to participate. The manual was considered to be applicable and relevant. Domains used most frequently were anger management, substance abuse, and medication adherence.
The intervention based on a flexible manual and five sessions was feasible and well accepted by participating patients. However, it turned out to be difficult to recruit this group of patients for an intervention programme and for a study. To conduct a randomised controlled trial, a screening of about 4.000 patients with schizophrenia will be necessary.
Soluble Interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) levels are strongly related to the levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and sIL-6Rs increase the immune activating properties of IL-6. We estimated sIL-6R serum levels in 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 healthy controls. In the patients, SIL-6R-CSF levels were also measured. The psychopathology was rated according to the AMDP system. We found a significant correlation between serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of sIL-6R, suggesting that serum levels may be a meaningful marker for the central action of sIL-6R. Moreover, significant correlations between the paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome and sIL-6R levels both in serum and CSF were observed. This finding suggests that IL-6 plays a role in the paranoid-hallucinatory symptomatology in schizophrenia. This can be understood regarding the influence of IL-6 to the catecholaminergic neurotransmission. The downregulating effects of neuroleptic treatment to sIL-6R demonstrate that the sIL-6R levels are decreased in the whole group of schizophrenic patients compared to controls.
COX-2 inhibition seems to balance the type-1/type-2 immune response, possibly via inhibition of prostaglandin E2. COX-2 inhibition reduces proinflammatory cytokines. COX-2 inhibition has an impact to the glutamatergic neurotransmission and influences the tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism: all three components seem to be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, particularly in schizophrenia and major depression.
Due to the increase of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2 in depressed patients, antiinflammatory treatment would be expected to show antidepressant effects. An antidepressant effect of rofecoxib was found in patients with osteoarthritis. An own randomized double blind pilot add-on study using the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in MD showed a significant therapeutic effect of the COX-2 inhibitor on depressive symptoms. Although those preliminary data have to be interpreted cautiously, those results are encouraging for further studies dealing with the inflammatory hypothesis of depression.
Secondly, we and other research-groups performed several studies of COX-2 inhibitors in schizophrenia. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, a therapeutic effect of celecoxib was observed. The finding of a clinical advantage of COX-2 inhibition could not be replicated in a second study. Further analysis of the data revealed that the efficacy of therapy with a COX-2 inhibitor seems most pronounced in the first years of the schizophrenic disease process.
It has to be considered, however, that therapy with COX-2 inhibitors is currently under discussion - as therapy with other non-steroidal antiphlogistics - due to cardiovascular side-effects.
In schizophrenia, sex differences related to age of onset, course of illness and response to antipsychotic treatment may be mirrored by differences in the underlying molecular pathways. We attempted to increase our understanding of these phenomena by carrying out multiplex immunoassay profiling of 95 serum molecules using samples from 4 independent cohorts of male and female first episode antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients (n=133) and matched controls (n=133). The concentrations of 16 molecules associated with hormonal, inflammation and growth factor pathways showed significant sex differences in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. In line with the numerous sex differences reported in schizophrenia, our findings included alterations in the levels of several hormones, including elevated free and total testosterone in female patients and concomitant sex differences in sex hormone binding globulin and prolactin concentrations. We also found higher levels of thyroxine binding globulin and seven inflammatory markers in male schizophrenia patients only, raising the possibility that some aspects of the widely-reported immunological abnormalities in schizophrenia may be specific for males. Several of these markers showed sexspecific associations with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores and changes in concentration after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics. Finally, we also evaluated overlapping and distinct sex-specific biomarkers for schizophrenia, Asperger syndrome, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. We propose that future studies should investigate the common and sex-specific aetiologies of schizophrenia, as the current findings suggest that different therapeutic strategies may be required for male and female patients.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Limbic-cortical imbalance is an established model for the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), but imaging genetics studies have been contradicting regarding potential risk and resilience mechanisms. Here, we re-assessed previously reported limbic-cortical alterations between MDD relatives and controls in combination with a newly acquired sample of MDD patients and controls, to disentangle pathology, risk, and resilience.
We analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data and negative affectivity (NA) of MDD patients (n = 48), unaffected first-degree relatives of MDD patients (n = 49) and controls (n = 109) who performed a faces matching task. Brain response and task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity (FC) were compared between groups and assessed for associations with NA.
Groups did not differ in task-related brain activation but activation in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was inversely correlated with NA in patients and controls. Pathology was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala FC with regions of the default mode network (DMN) and decreased amygdala FC with the medial frontal gyrus during faces matching, potentially reflecting a task-independent DMN predominance and a limbic-cortical disintegration during faces processing in MDD. Risk was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala-FC with fronto-parietal regions and reduced faces-associated amygdala-fusiform gyrus FC. Resilience corresponded to task-independent increases in amygdala FC with the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and increased FC between amygdala, pgACC, and SFG during faces matching.
Our results encourage a refinement of the limbic-cortical imbalance model of depression. The validity of proposed risk and resilience markers needs to be tested in prospective studies. Further limitations are discussed.
Due to the increased popularity of augmented (AR) and virtual (VR) reality experiences, the interest in representing the real world in an immersive fashion has never been higher. Distributing such representations enables users all over the world to freely navigate in never seen before media experiences. Unfortunately, such representations require a large amount of data, not feasible for transmission on today's networks. Thus, efficient compression technologies are in high demand. This paper proposes an approach to compress 3D video data utilizing 2D video coding technology. The proposed solution was developed to address the needs of “tele-immersive” applications, such as VR, AR, or mixed reality with “Six Degrees of Freedom” capabilities. Volumetric video data is projected on 2D image planes and compressed using standard 2D video coding solutions. A key benefit of this approach is its compatibility with readily available 2D video coding infrastructure. Furthermore, objective and subjective evaluation shows significant improvement in coding efficiency over reference technology. The proposed solution was contributed and evaluated in international standardization. Although it is was not selected as the winning proposal, as very similar solution has been selected developed since then.
Smoking is purported to increase the risk of peritonsillar abscess formation, but prospective data are needed to confirm this hypothesis. This prospective study aimed to identify this correlation.
Fifty-four patients with peritonsillar abscess were prospectively asked about their smoking behaviour using a questionnaire that was designed and approved by the Robert Koch Institute (Berlin, Germany) to analyse smoking behaviour in epidemiological studies. Afterwards, a consecutive control group (without peritonsillar abscess), matched in terms of age and gender, was surveyed using the same questionnaire. A classification of smoker, former smoker and non-smoker was made, and the numbers of pack-years were calculated and compared.
Statistical analysis of both groups revealed a significant correlation between peritonsillar abscess and smoking experience (p = 0.025). Moreover, there were significantly fewer non-smokers in the non-peritonsillar abscess group (p = 0.04). The number of pack-years was higher in the peritonsillar abscess group (p = 0.037).
There is a statistically significant association between peritonsillar abscess and smoking.
Azaperone can reduce stress caused by weaning and relocation of breeding sows, but its effects on reproductive processes are still poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to describe and compare the endocrine and ovarian activity in ultrasonographically monitored second parity sows, with or without azaperone treatment at weaning (2 mg/kg BW i.m.). The intervals from weaning to the onset of estrus and ovulation were both greater (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated (n=12) than in control sows (n=12) by ~12 h. Mean daily growth rates of identified antral follicles were less (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated than in control sows (1.08±0.17 v.1.23±0.18 mm/day; mean±SD) and treated animals exceeded (P<0.05) controls in the mean ovulation rate (13.7±1.3 v. 12.6±1.2). A transient suppression of cortisol release was observed in the treatment group (at 10 and 30 min after azaperone injections) but circulating cortisol concentrations were variable in both groups of sows for the remainder of the study. The preovulatory rise in LH and estradiol secretion was delayed (P<0.05), and the duration of the LH surge was greater (P<0.001) in azaperone-treated sows compared with their control counterparts. The amplitude of episodic fluctuations in serum cortisol concentrations was correlated with the number of stillborn piglets in control sows (r=0.63, P=0.04). The amplitude and concentration of the preovulatory rise in estradiol secretion were negatively correlated with ovulatory response and litter size (r=−0.63 to −0.82, P<0.05), whereas the time at which the LH surge ended was directly related to the number of live-born piglets (r=0.82, P=0.002) in azaperone-treated animals. The present results indicate that administration of azaperone at weaning had a profound effect on preovulatory LH secretion as well as growth kinetics and estrogenicity of ovarian antral follicles. However, the causative associations among various characteristics of the preovulatory LH discharge, ovarian and adrenal steroid secretion post-weaning, and reproductive variables in sows remain equivocal.