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Traditional perspectives conceptualize resilience as a trait and depression as resulting from resilience deficiency. However, research indicates that resilience varies substantially even among adults who are clinically depressed, as well as across the lifespan of an individual. Few studies have investigated resilience in depression, and even fewer have examined resilience in depressed older adults.
Three hundred thirty-seven adults ≥60 years with major depressive disorder completed the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and measures of mental health, quality of life (QOL), and medical comorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Correlations and general linear models were used to examine associations between resilience and other variables.
The rotated component matrix indicated a four-factor model. Sorting of items by highest factor loading revealed constructs associated with (1) grit, (2) active coping self-efficacy, (3) accommodative coping self-efficacy, and (4) spirituality. Resilience was significantly correlated with increased age, lower cognitive functioning, greater cerebrovascular risk, and greater medical comorbidity. Resilience was negatively associated with mental health symptoms (depression, apathy, and anxiety) and positively associated with QOL. The final optimal model identified less depression, less apathy, greater medical comorbidity, higher QOL, and minority (non-White) race as factors that significantly explained variability in resilience.
Resilience was significantly associated with a range of mental health constructs in a sample of older adults with depression. Future clinical trials and dismantling studies may help determine whether interventions targeting grit, active coping, accommodative coping, and spirituality can increase resilience and help prevent and treat depression in older adults.
Subjectively assessed health is related to mortality. Various subjective indicators of health have been studied, but it is unclear whether perceived physical functioning or mental health best accounts for the relation with mortality.
We studied the relation of subjective measures of health with all-cause mortality in 5538 participants of age 55 to 96 years at baseline from the Rotterdam Study. Various instruments of subjectively assessed health were used, that included basic activities of daily living (BADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), quality of life (QoL), positive affect, somatic symptoms and negative affect. All participants completed questionnaires for each subjective measure of health and were followed for mortality for a mean of 12.2 (s.e. = 0.09) years. Cox regression analysis was conducted in the total sample.
In this cohort, 2021 persons died during 48 534 person-years of follow-up. All measures of subjective health were related to mortality after adjusting for age, gender, education, cognition, prevalent chronic diseases and cardiovascular risk [BADL hazard ratio (HR, calculated per Z-score) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.41; IADL HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.22–1.32; QoL HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.81–0.89; positive affect HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.96; somatic symptoms HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.16; and negative affect HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.10]. In the mutually adjusted model, only BADL (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.16–1.32) and IADL (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.17) remained independently associated with mortality.
Measures of subjectively assessed health are important indicators of mortality. Our study shows that of the different measures of subjective health, perceived physical health predicts mortality over and above mental health. Conversely, the association between mental health and mortality may partly be explained by poor perceived physical health.
Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
There are two principal problems in explaining, in terms of the emission from OB stars, the ionisation of gas which emits diffuse Hα in spiral galaxies. One is the long pathlength which the ionising photons need to traverse to reach their objectives, the other is whether sufficient photons can escape from within the H II regions which surround the hot stars. Here we treat the second point, assuming that the H II regions above a certain threshold luminosity are density bounded. We calculate the escaping Lyman continuum (Lyc) fluxes from the density bounded regions in four galaxies, and show that in each of them this is easily suffcient to produce the measured diffuse Hα emission.
We have used the TAURUS Fabry–Perot mapping spectrometer on the William Herschel telescope (WHT) to produce a complete kinematic map of the disk of M100 in Hα. Here we show how the internal velocity dispersion (σ) of the principal emission components of the brightest regions varies with their Hα luminosity. The plot shows ample scatter, but an upper envelope in σ is clearly linear (in the log–log plane) with a slope of 2·6, a result which agrees precisely with an earlier graph by Arsenault et al., who selected instead the regions of highest surface brightness. We show that this result, which differs from the conventional prediction from the virial theorem, is consistent with virialisation if the H II regions are density bounded, and thus offers evidence in support of the density bounding hypothesis for the most luminous regions in disk galaxies.
Symbionts in sponges must interact with the host immune system, and this can be mediated by immunomodulators. As the bases of the immune system in sponges resemble those of higher metazoans, it is possible that compounds from this microbiota show similar effects in other phyla. It is also known that several antibiotics, in special macrolides, can modulate many components of the immune response and sponges and their associated microorganisms are a rich source of these compounds. Therefore, we tested the immunosuppressive capacity of antibiotic substances produced by bacterial and fungal strains isolated from the Amazon freshwater sponge Metania reticulata. Fourteen bacterial and six fungal strains were obtained from samples of M. reticulata collected in the Negro River (Amazon Central Basin region), during the dry season. These cultures were monitored for natural antimicrobial activity, and two Bacillus strains (MERETb.761 and MERETb.762) and one fungus (MERETf.010) were selected. One Bacillus strain, MERETb.762, showed strong and specific antibiosis on Staphylococcus aureus and two fractions of its extract inhibited the degranulation of RBL–2H3 cells. The predicted formulas of these fractions were C12H6N4O8 and C25H4N2O6, both corresponding to nitroaromatic compounds.
The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; P<0·05). No differences were seen between grazing-time with respect to milk production, fat and protein contents. However, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid was higher in milk of dairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).
The concept of ‘Ecosystem Services’ (ES) focuses on the linkages between ecosystems, including agroecosystems, and human well-being, referring to all the benefits, direct and indirect, that people obtain from ecosystems. In this paper, we review the application of the ES framework to pasture-based livestock farming systems, which allows (1) regulating, supporting and cultural ES to be integrated at the same level with provisioning ES, and (2) the multiple trade-offs and synergies that exist among ES to be considered. Research on livestock farming has focused mostly on provisioning ES (meat, milk and fibre production), despite the fact that provisioning ES strongly depends on regulating and supporting ES for their existence. We first present an inventory of the non-provisioning ES (regulating, supporting and cultural) provided by pasture-based livestock systems in Europe. Next, we review the trade-offs between provisioning and non-provisioning ES at multiple scales and present an overview of the methodologies for assessing biophysical trade-offs. Third, we present non-biophysical (economical and socio-cultural) methodologies and applications for ES valuation. We conclude with some recommendations for policy design.
Three different types of evidence are presented in favour of the hypothesis that the HII regions in disk galaxies with Hα luminosities greater than a critical value of 1038·6 erg s−1 are density-bounded, and that the escaping Lyman continuum photons from these are the principal ionising agents for the diffuse ISM in disk galaxies. This has important implications for the ionisation of the intergalactic medium, and for computed star formation rates in spirals.
In the presented study, a new application for distyrylbenzene oligoelectrolyte, named DSBN+, as a marker for bioimaging is presented. DSBN+ is a water-soluble, conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE) with novel photophysical and solvatochromatic properties. Previous studies have shown that this compound spontaneously inserts into bilayer membranes in both synthetic and microbial living systems and can facilitate visualization of cell membranes through fluorescence imaging. In the presented research, we seek to further study and exploit the multifunctional nature of DSBN+ in terms of membrane interactions and photophysical properties for visualization of membranous structures of more complex mammalian cells, namely a human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. Obtained results confirm the possibility of applying DSBN+ as a fluorescent dye for bioimaging of membranes in human cell cultures systems, both in live-cell imaging and in the studies required formaldehyde fixation. Due to the defined structure of this conjugated oligoelectrolyte we suspect that it will display organelle membrane selectivity, but this has to be further investigated.
In recent years, consumer attitudes toward fat of animal origin have changed owing to findings that some milk fatty acids (FAs) are positive for human health, especially conjugated linolenic acid and n-3 FAs. Accordingly, the manipulation of the fat content and FA composition of cows’ milk via nutritional strategies has been an important target for the dairy industry in many countries. Twenty commercial Holstein–Friesian dairy herds of Asturias (northern Spain) with 1106 dairy cows were examined in order to evaluate milk FA profiles under different management systems. These herds were divided into three groups according to management: (1) indoor herds: cows feeding indoors, (2) mixed herds: indoor management system but with at least 6 h of grazing outdoors and (3) outdoor herds: cows allowed 6–18 h of grazing per day. Milk from the indoor herds exhibited the highest concentration of fat (3.57%; P⩽0.01), protein (3.14%; P⩽0.001), lactose (4.76%; P⩽0.01) and urea (29.4 mg dl−1; P⩽0.01). The milk of outdoor herds had a lower (P⩽0.05) content of short-chain FAs than that of the indoor and mixed herds (10.89 versus 11.52 and 11.35 g 100 g−1 FA). The milk of the indoor herds had higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (67.56 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) and palmitic and palmitoleic acids (30.16 and 1.82 g 100 g−1 FA, respectively), while that of the mixed and outdoors herds had higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (34.58 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) and long-chain FAs, especially stearic (13.89 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.01), vaccenic (2.77 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001), conjugated linoleic (0.92 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) and linolenic (0.42 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) acids. Results from this study suggest that the incorporation of forage and pasture in the diet of dairy cows can improve the FA profile of milk.
The global financial system experienced its first systemic crisis since the 1930s in autumn 2008, with the failure of major financial institutions in the United States and Europe and the seizure of global credit markets. Although Hong Kong was not at the epicentre of this crisis, it was nonetheless affected. Following an overview of Hong Kong's existing financial regulatory framework, the article discusses the global financial crisis and its impact in Hong Kong, as well as regulatory responses to date. From this basis, the article discusses recommendations for reforms in Hong Kong to address weaknesses highlighted by the crisis, focusing on issues relating to Lehman Brothers “Minibonds.” The article concludes by looking forward, recommending that the crisis be taken not only as the catalyst to resolve existing weaknesses but also to strengthen and enhance Hong Kong's role and competitiveness as China's premier international financial centre.
Previous research suggests, though not consistently, that maternal psychological distress during pregnancy leads to adverse birth outcomes. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress affects fetal growth during the period of mid-pregnancy until birth.
Pregnant women (n=6313) reported levels of psychological distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory (anxious and depressive symptoms) and the Family Assessment Device (family stress) at 20.6 weeks pregnancy and had fetal ultrasound measurements in mid- and late pregnancy. Estimated fetal weight was calculated using head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length.
In mid-pregnancy, maternal distress was not linked to fetal size. In late pregnancy, however, anxious symptoms were related to fetal size after controlling for potential confounders. Anxious symptoms were also associated with a 37.73 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −69.22 to −6.25, p=0.019] lower birth weight. When we related maternal distress to fetal growth curves using multilevel models, more consistent results emerged. Maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression were associated with impaired fetal weight gain and impaired fetal head and abdominal growth. For example, depressive symptoms reduced fetal weight gain by 2.86 g (95% CI −4.48 to −1.23, p<0.001) per week.
The study suggests that, starting in mid-pregnancy, fetal growth can be affected by different aspects of maternal distress. In particular, children of prenatally anxious mothers seem to display impaired fetal growth patterns during pregnancy. Future work should address the biological mechanisms underlying the association of maternal distress with fetal development and focus on the effects of reducing psychological distress in pregnancy.
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease is associated with a very high clinical and epidemiological pleomorphism. This might be better understood through studies on the evolutionary history of the parasite. We explored here the value of antigen genes for the understanding of the evolution within T. cruzi. We selected 11 genes and 12 loci associated with different functions and considered to be involved in host-parasite interaction (cell adhesion, infection, molecular mimicry). The polymorphism of the respective genes in a sample representative of the diversity of T. cruzi was screened by PCR-RFLP and evolutionary relationships were inferred by phenetic analysis. Our results support the classification of T. cruzi in 2 major lineages and 6 discrete typing units (DTUs). The topology of the PCR-RFLP tree was the one that better fitted with the epidemiological features of the different DTUs: (i) lineage I, being encountered in sylvatic as well as domestic transmission cycles, (ii) IIa/c being associated with a sylvatic transmission cycle and (iii) IIb/d/e being associated with a domestic transmission cycle. Our study also supported the hypothesis that the evolutionary history of T. cruzi has been shaped by a series of hybridization events in the framework of a predominant clonal evolution pattern.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein source / availability on the intestinal microbiota, digestive traits and nutritional performance of early-weaned rabbits. The effects of supplemental antibiotics in the drinking water were also evaluated. Four isoenergetic and isofibrous diets were formulated: a control diet with a high protein (207 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and lucerne hay content (HPHL), a diet with low crude protein (CP) (179 g/kg DM) and high lucerne hay content (LPHL) and low protein diets in which the lucerne hay in diet LPHL was replaced partially (LPML) or totally (LPLL) with soya-bean protein concentrate. Rabbits, weaned at 25 days (52 per diet), were fed the experimental diets for a 2-week period and thereafter received a commercial diet until 56 days of age. The incidence of mortality was investigated using 70 animals per diet without supplemental medication. The profile of the ileal microbiota was studied at 35 days of age in rabbits treated (18 per diet) or not (12 per diet) with antibiotic. As expected, supplementation with antibiotics effectively reduced fattening mortality rate and microbial biodiversity. However, lowering of also the dietary CP content led to a reduction in the mortality rate ( P < 0.05), both in animals treated with (by 80%) or without (by 39%) antibiotics. In addition, there was a reduction ( P < 0.05) in the frequency of Clostridium perfringens in non-medicated animals. Neither jejunal morphology nor growth performance, over the whole fattening period, was affected by dietary CP content of the experimental diets. However, with HPHL, feed efficiency was higher (by 4.8%; P < 0.01) than with LPHL diets. Substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean meal in low protein diets did not affect apparent faecal or ileal digestibility of DM and CP. However, the ileal digestibility of cystine, alanine, aspartic acid, and proline was lowered ( P < 0.05) with increasing substitution by soya bean. Nevertheless, ileal CP flow, incidence of mortality and presence of C. perfringens were unaffected. Our results suggest that a reduction in dietary CP, resulting in reduced lumenal flows of nitrogen through the ileum, may be beneficial for young rabbits and limit the numbers of potentially harmful bacteria in the lower gut. Modulation of dietary CP should be contemplated as a strategy to increase the intestinal health in rabbits.