To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Although there are several empirical studies exploring the relationship between problematic Internet use and personality traits, few had considered perfectionism.
To explore the association between generalized problematic Internet use and perfectionism.
A sample of 433 Portuguese university students (Mage = 20.15 years, SD = 1.77, range = 18-25 years) completed the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2/GPIU and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Composite Scale – short version.
GPIU total score (rs=.16**), Mood Regulation (rs=.22**), and Deficient Self-Regulation (rs=.13**) were correlated with Positive Striving factor. GPIU total score (rs=.38**), Preference for Online Social Interaction (rs=.16**), Mood Regulation (rs=.28**), Deficient Self-Regulation (rs = .33**), and Negative Consequences (rs=.41**) were significantly correlated with Evaluative Concerns factor. A one-way between groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the relation between GPIU and perfectionism. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their GPIU risk levels (Group1:low-risk; Group2:medium-risk; Group3:high-risk). There was a statistically difference at p >.05 level in Positive Striving scores for the three risk level groups: F (2,430)=4.39, p=.013, and in Evaluative Concerns scores, F (2,430)=28.83, p=<.001. Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey USD test, for Positive Striving, indicated that the mean score for Group1 (M=39.21, SD=8.56) was significantly different from Group3 (M=43.69, SD=9.74). Considering Evaluative Concerns, the mean score for Group1 (M=39.86, SD=11.31) was significantly different from Group2 (M=46.91, SD=11.42) and from Group3 (M=51.75, SD=8.54).
GPIU is consistently related to maladaptive perfectionism. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the bidirectional association between GPIU and perfectionism traits.
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are an adverse effect of dopamine agonists (DAAs) that affects the quality of life and can lead to legal, criminal and familiar problems.
Presenting a review of the mechanisms, prevalence and factors associated with the development of an ICD due to DAA use.
Search on Pubmed database with combination of the following keywords were used: “Impulse control disorders”, “dopamine agonist” or “therapy”. We focused on data from studies published between 2015 and 2020. The articles were selected by the author according to their relevance.
DAAs are mainly indicated in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and are also used on symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and prolactinoma or lactation inhibition. Dopamine replacement therapy act on dopamine receptors in the nigrostriatal and the reward pathways, which plays a role in addictive behavior. The prevalence of ICDs ranged from 2.6 to 34.8% in PD patients and a lower prevalence in RLS patients. Some of the ICDs reported were pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping, obsessive hobbying, punding, and compulsive medication use. The factors associated with the development include the type of DAAs, dosage, male gender, younger age, history of psychiatric symptoms, earlier onset of disease, longer disease duration, and motor complications in PD.
Further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiology of the ICD in DAA therapy and determinate premorbid risk factors. The percentage of patients with ICDs is underrated, so it’s important to improve the patient’s evaluation, using validated and consensual assessment tools.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by behavioral or language changes with progressive executive dysfunction. It´s subdivided into two variants, the behavioral and language variants. The phenocopy syndrome of frontotemporal dementia (phFTD) mimics the behavioral variant, but doesn´t show frontotemporal atrophy in neuroimaging and doesn´t progress to frank dementia over the years.
Presenting a review of phenocopy syndrome of frontotemporal dementia.
Search on Pubmed® and Medscape® databases with the following keywords: “frontotemporal dementia and phenocopy” or “FTD phenocopy”. We focused on data from systematic reviews and meta-analyzes published in the last five years. The articles were selected by the authors according to their relevance.
Mutations in GRN and MAPT gens and genetic expansion of C9orf72 have been identified. The discovery of the C9orf72 expansion in psychiatric disorders (psychosis, bipolar disorder or depressive disorder), for some authors, represents that phFTD is a psychiatric pathology. In fact, there’s a higher frequency of psychiatric and psychological symptoms in phFTD compared to the variants of FTD. Usually are male patients who don´t have significant cognitive deficits, with preservation of executive functions and episodic memory. Until now, there are no definitive biomarkers of the disease. The prognosis is more benigne, unlike FTD, which has an average survival of 3 years since diagnosis.
phFTD is a clinical and scientific challenge. The neurobiological bases remain unknown, requiring further studies in this field. The identification of markers that can differentiate patients with typical FTD and phFTD can facilitate prognosis orientation and pharmacological an non-pharmacological treatment.
Stoke is a growing public health problem in the developed world resulting in more hospitalization and mortality. In young adults stroke is the third most common cause of death world wide and the fourth leading cause of disease burden.
The aim was to describe a case of recovery after two hemorrhagic strokes in a young adult patient.
It was presented a clinical case and review the current literature showing the pathway of recovery.
A 38-years-old man presented two episodes of hemorrahgic strokes with a lack of 6 months. With history of hypertension, smoking habits and consume of cannabinoid. The first hemorrhagic stroke had sequels of right hemiparesis. It was diagnosed with frontal arteriovenous malformation. In the second episode was submeted to frontoparietal craniotomy with total dissection of the arteriovenous malformation. After surgery he had convulsive crises that remited with valproic and levetirazetan. It did intensive rehabilitation and two months later he recovered totally. In this momente he is functional for daily lactivities, maintained the same treatment and cognitive stimulation.
It is necessary to accomplish for healthy habits in order to prevent strokes in young people. A better prognoses may be related to a urgent and prolonged intervention and reabilitation.
The relation between insecure general attachment and social anxiety has long been established.
To explore the associations between social interaction and performance anxiety and avoidance, attachment styles, and parental marital status.
146 Portuguese adolescents, with a mean age of 18.99 years old (SD = .848; range: 18-20), filled in the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures Questionnaire.
Distress/Anxiety was correlated with avoidance attachment to mother and father (rs = .17*, p = .04; rs = .18*, p = .03), to anxious attachment to romantic partner (rs = .21*, p = .01), and to anxious and avoidance attachment to best friend (rs = .25**, p = .00; (rs = .17*, p = .035). Avoidance was significantly correlated with avoidance to father and to romantic partner (rs = .18*, p = .03), and to anxious and avoidance attachment to best friend (rs = .21**, p = .009; rs = .18*, p = .03). A significant difference was found in avoidance attachment to father X2 = 10.246 (4, n = 146), p = .036, by parental marital status, with the adolescents with single/divorced parents presenting a higher mean score (Md = 111.10; Md = 82.93) than the other groups.
Distress/anxiety seems to be associated with more close relationships, and a single/divorced status with Avoidance. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore if insecure attachment to parents predicts insecure extra-familiar attachment, and to explore the long-term effects of parental marital status.
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms before progressing to seizures, complex movement disorder, autonomic dysfunction and hypoventilation.
Presenting a review of the psychiatric manifestations of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Search on Pubmed® and Medscape® databases with the following keywords: “psychiatric”, “anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis” and “anti-NMDAR encephalitis”. We focused on data from systematic reviews and meta-analyzes. The articles were selected by the authors according to their relevance.
Studies show that 77% to 95% of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis initially present psychiatric manifestations. Age and sex distribution are young women, and the frequency of cases is lower after 40 years of age. The most common psychiatric symptoms are agitation (59%) and psychotic symptoms (54%). The psychotic symptoms more common are visual (64%), auditory (59%) hallucinations and persecutory delusions (73%). Catatonia is described in 42% of patients. Antipsychotic treatment induces an adverse drug reaction (33%), the neuroleptic malignant syndrome represents 22% of the cases. Delays in distinguishing this disease from a psychiatric disorder can have serious complications, with a mortality of up to 25% in patients receiving limited or delayed immunotherapy.
It’s important to consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis in the differential diagnosis of patients with an acute onset psychosis or unusual psychiatric symptoms. Antipsychotic treatment should be use with caution when suspected or confirmed anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Without appropriate treatment, patients may suffer a protracted course with significant long-term disability or death. A clinical index of suspicion is required to identify patients who would benefit from cerebrospinal fluid testing and immunotherapies.
Olfactory hallucinations have been described since the 19th century as a particular, often unpleasant smell at the beginning or during the spell. The olfactory cortex are involved in temporal lobe epilepsy.
The aim was analyze the relationship between the olfactory hallucinations and the previus diagnosis of epilepsy.
In this study, we present a clinical case and review the current literature showing the relationship between smell and epilepsy.
A 69-years-old woman, with a medical history of epilepsy, went to the emergency department describing a recent episode of seizure, self-limited in time, after a sensation of an unpleasant smell in bed. A medical history of osteoarthritis, cholecystectomy and essential tremor is described. No unknown drug allergies. The neurological examination shows dysarthric speech, tremor in the right upper limb, isochoric and reactive pupils, preserved sensitivity and strength, and a positive Romber’s sign. The physical examination, blood test and vital signs were normal. The head CT scan showed signs of ischemic leukoencephalopathy, without acute ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions. The patient was medicated with 1000 mg of valproate daily, which was suspended a month ago due to an alteration in liver transaminases. Treatment with diazepam 10 mg daily was prescribed and referred for consultation. The sense of smell changes over time for anormal aging process, affecting abilitiesto detect, identify and discriminate odors.Several neurodegenerative diseases presentcertain alterations that help us determine yourorigin and progression (Vaughan and Jackson, 2014).
Olfactory auras occurs before a seizure of the temporal lobe. Repeated stimuli in limbic regions can produce changes in the piriform cortex, with increased excitability and in epileptic discharges.
The production of specialty coffee has several factors and parameters that are added up in the course of production, so that the quality is expressed in the act of consumption. Based on this scenario, this study included the analysis of ten genotypes of arabica coffee, the materials being subjected to irrigated and rainfed water regimes, in a low altitude region, to identify responses for sensory and physical–chemical quality. The genotypes were evaluated in a split-plot scheme with a randomized block design, with three replications. Arabica coffee fruits were harvested with 80% cherry seeds and processed by the wet method. Subsequently, the characteristics related to physical–chemical and sensory analyses were evaluated. The genotypes of the Paraíso group showed great variability for the physical–chemical and sensory variables for rainfed and irrigated regimes. The genotypes of the Catuaí group, however, showed less variability for sensory characteristics in both cultivation environments and for physical–chemical characteristics in the irrigated regime. In the sensorial data set, the genotypes Catuaí 144 CCF and Catuaí 144 SFC (when irrigated) and Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-2, Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-11 and Catucaí 24-137 (rainfed cultivation), are more favourable to the production of specialty coffee at low altitude.
Questions remain regarding whether genetic influences on early life psychopathology overlap with cognition and show developmental variation.
Using data from 9,421 individuals aged 8–21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, factors of psychopathology were generated using a bifactor model of item-level data from a psychiatric interview. Five orthogonal factors were generated: anxious-misery (mood and anxiety), externalizing (attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorder), fear (phobias), psychosis-spectrum, and a general factor. Genetic analyses were conducted on a subsample of 4,662 individuals of European American ancestry. A genetic relatedness matrix was used to estimate heritability of these factors, and genetic correlations with executive function, episodic memory, complex reasoning, social cognition, motor speed, and general cognitive ability. Gene × Age analyses determined whether genetic influences on these factors show developmental variation.
Externalizing was heritable (h2 = 0.46, p = 1 × 10−6), but not anxious-misery (h2 = 0.09, p = 0.183), fear (h2 = 0.04, p = 0.337), psychosis-spectrum (h2 = 0.00, p = 0.494), or general psychopathology (h2 = 0.21, p = 0.040). Externalizing showed genetic overlap with face memory (ρg = −0.412, p = 0.004), verbal reasoning (ρg = −0.485, p = 0.001), spatial reasoning (ρg = −0.426, p = 0.010), motor speed (ρg = 0.659, p = 1x10−4), verbal knowledge (ρg = −0.314, p = 0.002), and general cognitive ability (g)(ρg = −0.394, p = 0.002). Gene × Age analyses revealed decreasing genetic variance (γg = −0.146, p = 0.004) and increasing environmental variance (γe = 0.059, p = 0.009) on externalizing.
Cognitive impairment may be a useful endophenotype of externalizing psychopathology and, therefore, help elucidate its pathophysiological underpinnings. Decreasing genetic variance suggests that gene discovery efforts may be more fruitful in children than adolescents or young adults.
Benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription rates have increased over the past decade in the United States. Available literature indicates that sociodemographic factors may influence diagnostic patterns and/or prescription behaviour. Herein, the aim of this study is to determine whether the gender of the prescriber and/or patient influences BZD prescription.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Florida Medicaid Managed Medical Assistance Program from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. Eligible recipients ages 18 to 64, inclusive, enrolled in the Florida Medicaid plan for at least 1 day, and were dually eligible. Recipients either had a serious mental illness (SMI), or non-SMI and anxiety.
Total 125 463 cases were identified (i.e., received BZD or non-BZD prescription). Main effect of patient and prescriber gender was significant F(1, 125 459) = 0.105, P = 0 .745, partial η2 < 0.001. Relative risk (RR) of male prescribers prescribing a BZD compared to female prescribers was 1.540, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.513, 1.567], whereas the RR of male patients being prescribed a BZD compared to female patients was 1.16, 95% CI [1.14, 1.18]. Main effects of patient and prescriber gender were statistically significant F(1, 125 459) = 188.232, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.001 and F(1, 125 459) = 349.704, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.013, respectively.
Male prescribers are more likely to prescribe BZDs, and male patients are more likely to receive BZDs. Further studies are required to characterize factors that influence this gender-by-gender interaction.
School-based studies, despite the large number of studies conducted, have reported inconclusive results on obesity prevention. The sample size is a major constraint in such studies by requiring large samples. This pooled analysis overcomes this problem by analysing 5926 students (mean age 11·5 years) from five randomised school-based interventions. These studies focused on encouraging students to change their drinking and eating habits, and physical activities over the one school year, with monthly 1-h sessions in the classroom; culinary class aimed at developing cooking skills to increase healthy eating and attempts to family engagement. Pooled intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models accounted for school clusters. Control and intervention groups were balanced at baseline. The overall result was a non-significant change in BMI after one school year of positive changes in behaviours associated with obesity. Estimated mean BMI changed from 19·02 to 19·22 kg/m2 in the control group and from 19·08 to 19·32 kg/m2 in the intervention group (P value of change over time = 0·09). Subgroup analyses among those overweight or with obesity at baseline also did not show differences between intervention and control groups. The percentage of fat measured by bioimpedance indicated a small reduction in the control compared with intervention (P = 0·05). This large pooled analysis showed no effect on obesity measures, although promising results were observed about modifying behaviours associated with obesity.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) for children aged 1–2 years and to analyse the quality of nutrition of preterm infants. This was a cross-sectional study with 106 premature infants attended in two specialised outpatient clinics of university hospitals. The quality of the diet was analysed through an adapted HEI to meet the dietary recommendations of Brazilian children aged 1–2 years. Food consumption was measured by 24-h recalls. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated by internal consistency analysis and inter-observer reliability using Cronbach’s α coefficient and κ with quadratic ponderation. The construct validity was evaluated by principal component analysis and by Spearman’s correlation coefficient with total energy and consumption of some groups’ food. The diet quality was considered adequate when the total HEI score was over 80 points. Cronbach’s α was 0·54. Regarding inter-observer reliability, ten items showed strong agreement (κ > 0·8). The item scores had low correlations with energy consumed (r ≤ 0·30), and positive and moderate correlation of fruit (r 0·67), meat (r 0·60) and variety of diet (r 0·57) with total scores. When analysing the overall quality of the diet, most patients need improvement (median 78·7 points), which can be attributed to low total vegetable intake and the presence of ultraprocessed foods in the diet. The instrument showed auspicious psychometric properties, being promising to evaluate the quality of the diet in children aged 1–2 years.
The fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering that mimic the extracellular matrix with bioactive and bactericidal properties could provide adequate conditions for regeneration of damaged bone. Electrospun ultrathin fiber covered with nano-hydroxyapatite is a favorable fibrous scaffold design. We developed a fast and reproducible strategy to produce polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) nanofibrous scaffolds with bactericidal and bioactive properties. Fibrous PVDF scaffolds were obtained first by the electrospinning method. Then, their surfaces were modified using oxygen plasma treatment followed by electrodeposition of nHAp. This process formed nanofibrous and superhydrophilic PVDF fibers (133.6 nm, fiber average diameter) covered with homogeneous nHAp (202.6 nm, average particle diameter) crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate, indicating a Ca/P molar ratio of approximately 1.64. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy spectra identified β-phase of nHAp. Thermal analysis indicated a slight reduction in stability after nHAp electrodeposition. Bactericidal assays showed that nHAp exhibited 99.8% efficiency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The PVDF/Plasma and PVDF/nHAp groups had the highest cell viability, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase activity by 7 days after exposure of the scaffolds to MG63 cell culture. Therefore, the developed scaffolds are an exciting alternative for application in bone regeneration.
To determine nutritional adequacy of school lunch and to assess the impact of food waste on nutrient intake of primary schoolchildren.
The weighing method was used for evaluating initial servings and plate waste for lunch. Energy and nutritional contents of meals served, consumed and wasted were estimated using the software Food Processor Plus. The mean nutritional value of food served and consumed was compared with dietary guidelines.
Portuguese public primary schools in the city of Porto.
All 525 fourth-grade children, aged from 9 to 10 years old, attending to twenty-one public primary schools.
Overall, school lunches served did not meet the dietary guidelines for energy and nutrients, as only 12·5 % of the evaluated meals were adequate for energy, 33·5 % for proteins, 11·9 % for carbohydrates and 57·1 % for lipids. The majority of meals served were below the age-specific lower limit, namely for energy (83·7 %) and carbohydrates (86·8 %). The only exception, also unbalanced, was observed for proteins, as 42·4 % of lunches served exceeded the recommended upper limit. Furthermore, lunches served and consumed by children did not meet the dietary guidelines for fibre and for the micronutrients evaluated. Children wasted 26 % of the energy content provided in lunches, corresponding to 91·5 kcal, 25 % of proteins and 29 % of carbohydrates supplied.
The lunches served and consumed by children at school canteens failed to meet nutritional standards. These results are not only a consequence of inadequate food portions served but also a result of the high plate waste values observed.
Background: Loss of a spouse is a frequent occurrence in later life, with about 10% of the individuals finding themselves unable to cope and progressing to prolonged grief, risking further mental and physical problems.
Objective: The development and implementation of an online grief program, such as LEAVES (optimizing the menta L hEalth and resilience of older Adults that haVe lost th Eir spou Se via blended, online therapy), intends to improve prevention and treatment of prolonged grief, so that elderly mourners can continue to lead an active, meaningful and dignified life.
Methods: The LEAVES program, a project under AAL (Active and Assisted Living) 2019 Call for Sustainable Smart Solutions for Ageing Well, is in development by an international consortium and integrates academical, clinical and technical experts. The project will take place between February 2020 and January 2023 and involve real-life evaluation of 315 end-users. The Psychiatric Department at the Health Unit of Baixo Alentejo (ULSBA) will offer the service to its primary users, blending online services with telephone, video calls and face-to-face sessions. Widowed older adults >65 that express the need for help in mourning their spouse will be recruited in the community as well as via the geriatric psychiatry team and primary care.
Results: With LEAVES program we aim for older adults to process the loss of a spouse in a blended online/presential environment, detecting olders at risk for complications, reveal negative trends in their emotional life, and act to counter such trends. The evaluation will focus on wellbeing and involve several measures to assess grief symptoms, loneliness, hopelessness, satisfaction and quality of life. Conclusions: ULSBA will use LEAVES to improve clinical practice on preventing and managing prolonged grief as well as, after testing and validating it in this project, to save economical costs and improve effectiveness, both to hospital and patients.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in the baseline of the Longitudinal Study on the Lifestyle and Health of University Students (n 685) carried out in a public Brazilian university. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Dietary patterns (DP) for breakfast, lunch and dinner were identified using principal component analysis. Generalised linear models were used to analyse the variables associated with each DP. Three DP were extracted for each meal: breakfast: ‘White bread and butter/margarine’, ‘Coffee and tea’ and ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’; lunch: ‘Traditional’, ‘Western’ and ‘Vegetarian’ and dinner: ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’, ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’. Students who had meals at the campus showed greater adherence to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 1·15, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) and ‘Coffee and tea’ (exp (βadj) = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) breakfast patterns; ‘Western’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08) and to the ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’ dinner pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·10, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14). Having meals at the campus was associated with lower adherence to the ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’ breakfast pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·89, 0·97), ‘Traditional’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) dinner pattern. The food environment at campus may influence students’ DP. Recognising meal eating patterns is important to support healthy eating promotion strategies on campus. Adjustments in the University Canteen menu could contribute to healthier eating choices among students.
Pelagic seabird populations have declined strongly worldwide. In the North Atlantic there was a huge reduction in seabird populations following the European colonization of the Azores, Madeira and Canary archipelagos but information on seabird status and distribution for the subtropical region of Cabo Verde is scarce, unavailable or dispersed in grey literature. We compiled and compared the historical and current distribution of all seabird species breeding in the Cabo Verde archipelago, updated their relative abundance, investigated their inland habitat preferences, and reviewed their threats. Currently, the breeding seabird community in Cabo Verde is composed of Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina aedesorum, Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Storm-petrel Hydrobates jabejabe, Cape Verde Petrel Pterodroma feae, Boyd's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri boydi, Brown Booby Sula leucogaster, and Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus. One breeding species is currently extinct, the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens. The relative abundance of Cape Verde Shearwater, Boyd’s Shearwater, Cape Verde Petrel, and Cape Verde Storm-petrel was determined from counts of their nocturnal calls in Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, Branco, Raso and São Nicolau. Cape Verde Petrel occurred only on mountainous islands (Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Santiago, and Fogo) from mid-to high elevations. Larger species such as the Cape Verde Shearwater and Boyd’s Shearwater exhibited a wider distribution in the archipelago, occurring close to the coastline but at lower densities on populated islands. Small procellariforms such as the Cape Verde Storm-petrel occurred at high densities only on rat-free islets and in steep areas of main islands where introduced cats and rats are unlikely to occur. The main threats to seabird populations in Cabo Verde range from predation by introduced predators, habitat alteration or destruction, and some residual human persecution.
The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.