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Nursing work requires technical, scientific competence, knowledge, skill and emotional control over practice, considering that care presents risk situations, physical and emotional stress, responsibilities with people’s lives, coping with fears and suffering. All this situation in which the professional is exposed can lead to the occurrence of psychological wear, high stress and anxiety, this is conceptualized as a vague and unpleasant feeling of fear, apprehension, with characteristics of tension or discomfort derived from anticipating danger, something unknown or strange.
To identify the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety among nursing professionals who work coping with COVID-19 in a Brazilian regional university hospital.
Cross-sectional observational study, with sociodemographic questionnaire and anxiety measurement scale (HAD), with 88 nursing professionals. The data were analyzed using absolute and relative frequency, using the software StatisticalPackage for the Social Sciences.
There was a prevalence of anxiety (48.9%), with the majority of the sample consisting of women, over 40 years old, married or in a stable relationship, white, with higher education or postgraduate education, with income above R $ 3,000.00, tendered, with a work regime of 40 hours per week and time in the hospital from 1 to 5 years.
The impact should be considered on Nursing Mental Health caused by COVID-19 and intervene with coping strategies to minimize anxiety.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) for children aged 1–2 years and to analyse the quality of nutrition of preterm infants. This was a cross-sectional study with 106 premature infants attended in two specialised outpatient clinics of university hospitals. The quality of the diet was analysed through an adapted HEI to meet the dietary recommendations of Brazilian children aged 1–2 years. Food consumption was measured by 24-h recalls. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated by internal consistency analysis and inter-observer reliability using Cronbach’s α coefficient and κ with quadratic ponderation. The construct validity was evaluated by principal component analysis and by Spearman’s correlation coefficient with total energy and consumption of some groups’ food. The diet quality was considered adequate when the total HEI score was over 80 points. Cronbach’s α was 0·54. Regarding inter-observer reliability, ten items showed strong agreement (κ > 0·8). The item scores had low correlations with energy consumed (r ≤ 0·30), and positive and moderate correlation of fruit (r 0·67), meat (r 0·60) and variety of diet (r 0·57) with total scores. When analysing the overall quality of the diet, most patients need improvement (median 78·7 points), which can be attributed to low total vegetable intake and the presence of ultraprocessed foods in the diet. The instrument showed auspicious psychometric properties, being promising to evaluate the quality of the diet in children aged 1–2 years.
We studied the associations between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the neurobehavioral status in two population-based birth cohorts.
Children (n = 467) were assessed by psychologists and teachers for neuropsychological functioning (McCarthy Scales, MCSA), inattention-hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD-DSM-IV form list) and social behavior (California Preschool Social Competence Scale, CPSCS). Regression models were used with covariate adjustment.
Sixteen percent of children had ADHD-DSM-IV symptoms. MCSA scores were linearly associated with ADHD symptom scores (general cognitive Beta = −0.6 [−1.0; −0.3] per symptom), specifically inattention scores (general cognitive Beta = −1.8 [−2.3; −1.2]). CPSCS scores were associated with ADHD symptoms (Beta = −2.19 [−2.5; −1.9]). MCSA scores of executive function, perceptive-performance and quantitative sub-areas had stronger associations with ADHD symptoms.
Preschooler ADHD symptoms are associated with concurrent decrements in neurocognitive and social competence functioning. The association patterns are similar to those found in older children with ADHD symptomology (Marks et al., 2005 , Seidman, 2006 , Sonuga-Barke et al., 2003 , Yochman et al., 2006 ).
A novel brief cognitive-behavioural SST addressing seven target behaviours proposed by Kopelowicz, Zarate, and Liberman (2006) was designed and tested in a sample of outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (Rus-Calafell et al., 2013). The proposed training was focused on the seven target behaviours: social perception, social information processing, responding and sending skills, affiliative skills, instrumental role skills, interactional skills, and behaviours governed by social norms. Furthermore, it was applied in a group format to provide the patients with opportunities to practice the newly learned skills with other subjects. Results at posttreatment showed an improvement in the self-statements during social interactions, negative symptomatology and psychopathology, and quality of life regarding mental health. Informants (most of them family) also reported a perceived positive change, in terms of social withdrawal and communication, for those patients who benefitted from SST. There was also a very positive effect of the treatment on the SST group regarding subjects’ emotional and social cognition. The authors assume that the treatment's content focused on social perception and social attribution resulted in a significant impact on these outcome measures, specifically in the emotional self-regulation statements during social interactions. In terms of subjective evaluation of the treatment, the qualitative assessment revealed a high treatment's acceptance and perceived benefit to subjects. Main application issues as well as clinical case examples will be discussed in the workshop.
Describe the distinguishing characteristics between patients with early onset of alcohol use (EARLY, age < 15) and late onset of alcohol use (LATE, age > 16), both affected of acute non-substance use psychiatric disorders (non-SUD) and any substance use disorder admitted in a dual diagnosis unit.
Material and methods
Data on demographic, family, and clinical factors were gathered among subjects admitted to our dual diagnosis unit along three years, all of them meeting DSM-IV criteria of any non-substance related Axis I or II disorder and comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS program.
We show results of 748 patients (437 of EARLY group and 311 of LATE group). Predominantly male (73,53%) with a mean age of 39,60 ± 9,7 years. Most prevalent non-SUD psychiatric disorders were psychotic disorder (39,97%) and personality disorder (39,30%). In our sample, most common substances of abuse were Alcohol (45,05%) and Cocaine (30,35%). EARLY patients had an earlier first contact all substances as well as an earlier age of problematic consumption of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine; they also had major prevalence of opioid SUD, sedatives SUD and amphetamines SUD (see Tables 1, 2 and 3).
Patients who began earlier their consumptions of alcohol had major prevalence of opioid, sedatives and amphetamine use. They also had earlier consumptions of other substances and earlier problematic consumptions of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine, what probably means greater severity of drug addiction in the long run.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Understanding the mechanisms underlying net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in mountain grasslands is important to quantify their relevance in the global carbon budget. However, complex interactions between environmental variables and vegetation on NEE remain unclear; and there is a lack of empirical data, especially from the high elevations and the Mediterranean region. A chamber-based survey of CO2 exchange measurements was carried out in two climatically contrasted grasslands (montane v. subalpine) of the Pyrenees; assessing the relative contribution of phenology and environmental variables on CO2 exchange at the seasonal scale, and the influence of plant functional type dominance (grasses, forbs and legumes) on the NEE light response. Results show that phenology plays a crucial role as a CO2 exchange driver, suggesting a differential behaviour of the vegetation community depending on the environment. The subalpine grassland had a more delayed phenology compared to the montane, being more temperature than water constrained. However, temperature increased net CO2 uptake at a higher rate in the subalpine than in the montane grassland. During the peak biomass, productivity (+74%) and net CO2 uptake (NEE +48%) were higher in the subalpine grassland than in the montane grassland. The delayed phenology at the subalpine grassland reduced vegetation's sensitivity to summer dryness, and CO2 exchange fluxes were less constrained by low soil water content. The NEE light response suggested that legume dominated plots had higher net CO2 uptake per unit of biomass than grasses. Detailed information on phenology and vegetation composition is essential to understand elevation and climatic differences in CO2 exchange.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
The present study integrates several aspects of a parasitological survey in a rural community village combining community knowledge of parasites, their potential transmission routes and health risk factors. A rural community located in Northern Thailand was surveyed for intestinal parasites, and an overall prevalence of 45.2% for helminths and 4.8% for protozoan infections was identified. Socio-demographic characteristics, customs and perceptions were compiled using individual questionnaires and interviews for participants surveyed for parasitic screening. The results allowed us to determine the knowledge and perception of local people concerning helminthic infection and transmission. Despite the fact that the participants in this community were aware of parasitic transmission routes, their widespread custom of eating raw fish and meat render the reduction of helminthiasis difficult. A detailed study on the infection of fish-borne parasitic trematodes, the most prevalent helminth, allowed us to determine that the distance from a given household to the river is a determinant of infection intensity. Health education activities organised in the local community resulted in a change in perception of risks associated with parasite transmission.
Recent open-label trials show that psychedelics, such as ayahuasca, hold promise as fast-onset antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression.
To test the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca, we conducted a parallel-arm, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 29 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Patients received a single dose of either ayahuasca or placebo. We assessed changes in depression severity with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale at baseline, and at 1 (D1), 2 (D2), and 7 (D7) days after dosing.
We observed significant antidepressant effects of ayahuasca when compared with placebo at all-time points. MADRS scores were significantly lower in the ayahuasca group compared with placebo at D1 and D2 (p = 0.04), and at D7 (p < 0.0001). Between-group effect sizes increased from D1 to D7 (D1: Cohen's d = 0.84; D2: Cohen's d = 0.84; D7: Cohen's d = 1.49). Response rates were high for both groups at D1 and D2, and significantly higher in the ayahuasca group at D7 (64% v. 27%; p = 0.04). Remission rate showed a trend toward significance at D7 (36% v. 7%, p = 0.054).
To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test a psychedelic substance in treatment-resistant depression. Overall, this study brings new evidence supporting the safety and therapeutic value of ayahuasca, dosed within an appropriate setting, to help treat depression. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02914769).
The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding and drinking behaviour and intake developed for young cattle housed in group. A total of 35 Holstein–Gyr crossbred heifers (BW: 180±52 kg; age: 121.5±32.5 days), fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder, were distributed in three groups of 12, 12 and 11 animals per period and had free access to 12 electronic feed bins and two electronic water bins (Intergado® Ltd). The dimensions of feed and water bins, as well as the sensors position were appropriate for young cattle. The system documented the visit frequency and duration, as well as the feed and water intakes, by recording the animal’s identification tag, bin number, initial and final times of visits and the difference of feed/water weight at the start and end of each bin visit. Feed bins were monitored using time-lapse video recording over 4 days and the water bins were monitored over 6 days. For each feed bin, two feeding events were monitored using manual weighings with an external scale immediately before and after the animal’s visit and the difference between them was assumed as feed intake (n=24 observations). For the water bins, 60 manual weighings were made. Video and manual weighing data were regressed on the electronic feeding and drinking behaviour and intake data to evaluate the system’s precision and accuracy. The system showed high specificity (98.98% and 98.56% for the feed and water bins, respectively) and sensitivity (99.25% and 98.74%, respectively) for identifying an animal’s presence or absence. Duration of feed and water bin visits as well as feed and water consumption per visit estimated by the system were highly correlated and precise compared with the observed video and manual weighing data (r2=0.917, 0.963, 0.973 and 0.986, respectively). It was concluded that Intergado® system is a useful tool for monitoring feeding and drinking behaviour as well as water and feed intakes in young cattle housed in groups.
The stellar occultation technique is a powerful tool to study distant small solar system bodies. Currently, around 2 500 trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs are known. With the astrometry from Gaia and large surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), accurate predictions of occultation events will be available to tens of thousands of TNOs and Centaurs and boost the knowledge of the outer solar system.
Extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. Gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of Cambodia (Krong Preah Sihanouk, Mondolkiri, Pursat and Steung Treng). The average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0–64.7%), and 19 helminth taxa were identified in total. Trichostrongylid nematodes were the most prevalent (25.8%), followed by Raillietina sp. (14.1%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (10.7%), Syphacia muris (9.8%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (9.6%). Potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminths were also identified, and the risks of helminthiasis were discussed. The status of helminth infection and species diversity in rodents from settlements were significantly lower than in rodents from forest and peri-domesticated habitats, which indicates that habitat alteration might affect helminth infection and diversity in rodent hosts. Generalized linear models revealed that host attributes (host species and maturity) and environmental factors (habitat and geographical location) were explanatory variables for helminth infection in these rodents. Using network analyses, we showed that the oriental house rat, Rattus tanezumi, was the most central host in the rodent–helminth assemblage, based on the number of helminth taxa it shared with other rodent species. Therefore, R. tanezumi could play an important role in rodent–helminth interactions and helminth transmission to other rodent hosts.
The traditional Mediterranean diet includes high consumption of fruits, vegetables, olive oil, legumes, cereals and nuts, moderate to high intake of fish and dairy products, and low consumption of meat products. Intervention effects to improve adoption of this diet may vary in terms of individuals’ motivational or volitional prerequisites. In the context of a three-country research collaboration, intervention effects on these psychological constructs for increasing adoption of the Mediterranean diet were examined.
An intervention was conducted to improve Mediterranean diet consumption with a two-month follow-up. Linear multiple-level models examined which psychological constructs (outcome expectancies, planning, action control and stage of change) were associated with changes in diet scores.
Web-based intervention in Italy, Spain and Greece.
Adults (n 454; mean age 42·2 (sd 10·4) years, range 18–65 years; n 112 at follow-up).
Analyses yielded an overall increase in the Mediterranean diet scores. Moreover, there were interactions between time and all four psychological constructs on these changes. Participants with lower levels of baseline outcome expectancies, planning, action control and stage of change were found to show steeper slopes, thus greater behavioural adoption, than those who started out with higher levels.
The intervention produced overall improvements in Mediterranean diet consumption, with outcome expectancies, planning, action control and stage of change operating as moderators, indicating that those with lower motivational or volitional prerequisites gained more from the online intervention. Individual differences in participants’ readiness for change need to be taken into account to gauge who would benefit most from the given treatment.
Among the solar proxies, κ1 Cet, stands out as potentially having a mass very close to solar and a young age. We report magnetic field measurements and planetary habitability consequences around this star, a proxy of the young Sun when life arose on Earth. Magnetic strength was determined from spectropolarimetric observations and we reconstruct the large-scale surface magnetic field to derive the magnetic environment, stellar winds, and particle flux permeating the interplanetary medium around κ1 Cet. Our results show a closer magnetosphere and mass-loss rate 50 times larger than the current solar wind mass-loss rate when Life arose on Earth, resulting in a larger interaction via space weather disturbances between the stellar wind and a hypothetical young-Earth analogue, potentially affecting the habitability. Interaction of the wind from the young Sun with the planetary ancient magnetic field may have affected the young Earth and its life conditions.
CARMENES is a pair of high-resolution (R ≳ 80, 000) spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.52 to 1.71 μm with only small gaps. The instrument has been optimized for precise radial velocity measurements. It was installed and commissioned at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto observatory in Southern Spain in 2015. The first large science program of CARMENES is a survey of ~300 M dwarfs, which started on Jan 1, 2016. We present an overview of the instrument, and provide a few examples of early science results.
In order to compare estimates by one assessment scale across various cultures/ethnic groups, an important aspect that needs to be demonstrated is that its construct across these groups is invariant when measured using a similar and simultaneous approach (i.e., demonstrated cross-cultural measurement invariance). One of the methods for evaluating measurement invariance is testing for differential item functioning (DIF), which assesses whether different groups respond differently to particular items. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) in societies with different socioeconomic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.
The study was organised by the International Child Mental Health Study Group. Self-reported data were collected from adolescents residing in 11 countries: Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Indonesia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Palestinian Territories, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania and Serbia. The multiple-indicators multiple-causes model was used to test the RCADS items for DIF across the countries.
Ten items exhibited DIF considering all cross-country comparisons. Only one or two items were flagged with DIF in the head-to-head comparisons, while there were three to five items flagged with DIF, when one country was compared with the others. Even with all cross-culturally non-invariant items removed from nine language versions tested, the original factor model representing six anxiety and depressive symptoms subscales was not significantly violated.
There is clear evidence that relatively small number of the RCADS items is non-invariant, especially when comparing two different cultural/ethnic groups, which indicates on its sound cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparisons in adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.
We describe the diversity and structure of a host–parasite network of 11 anuran species and their helminth parasites in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Specifically, we investigate how the heterogeneous use of space by hosts changes parasite community diversity, and how the local pool of parasites exploits sympatric host species of different habits. We examined 229 anuran specimens, interacting with 32 helminth parasite taxa. Mixed effect models indicated the influence of anuran body size, but not habit, as a determinant of parasite species richness. Variation in parasite taxonomic diversity, however, was not significantly correlated with host size or habit. Parasite community composition was not correlated with host phylogeny, indicating no strong effect of the evolutionary relationships among anurans on the similarities in their parasite communities. Host–parasite network showed a nested and non-modular pattern of interaction, which is probably a result of the low host specificity observed for most helminths in this study. Overall, we found host body size was important in determining parasite community richness, whereas low parasite specificity was important to network structure.
The molecular phylogeny and morphology of the oxyuroid nematode genus Aspiculuris from voles and house mice has been examined. Worms collected from Myodes glareolus in Poland, Eire and the UK are identified as Aspiculuris tianjinensis, previously known only from China, while worms from Mus musculus from a range of locations in Europe and from laboratory mice, all conformed to the description of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Worms from voles and house mice are not closely related and are not derived from each other, with A. tianjinensis being most closely related to Aspiculuris dinniki from snow voles and to an isolate from Microtus longicaudus in the Nearctic. Both A. tianjinensis and A. tetraptera appear to represent recent radiations within their host groups; in voles, this radiation cannot be more than 2 million years old, while in commensal house mice it is likely to be less than 10 000 years old. The potential of Aspiculuris spp. as markers of host evolution is highlighted.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a new instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been constructed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is a 600-night radial-velocity survey targeting 300 M dwarfs with sufficient precision to detect terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Both spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s−1. The wavelength calibration will be done with Th-Ne and U-Ne emission line lamps, and with Fabry-Pérot etalons.