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To determine the demographic pattern of juvenile-onset parkinsonism (JP, <20 years), young-onset (YOPD, 20–40 years), and early onset (EOPD, 40–50 years) Parkinson’s disease (PD) in India.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a 2-year, pan-India, multicenter collaborative study to analyze clinical patterns of JP, YOPD, and EOPD. All patients under follow-up of movement disorders specialists and meeting United Kingdom (UK) Brain Bank criteria for PD were included.
A total of 668 subjects (M:F 455:213) were recruited with a mean age at onset of 38.7 ± 8.1 years. The mean duration of symptoms at the time of study was 8 ± 6 years. Fifteen percent had a family history of PD and 13% had consanguinity. JP had the highest consanguinity rate (53%). YOPD and JP cases had a higher prevalence of consanguinity, dystonia, and gait and balance issues compared to those with EOPD. In relation to nonmotor symptoms, panic attacks and depression were more common in YOPD and sleep-related issues more common in EOPD subjects. Overall, dyskinesias were documented in 32.8%. YOPD subjects had a higher frequency of dyskinesia than EOPD subjects (39.9% vs. 25.5%), but they were first noted later in the disease course (5.7 vs. 4.4 years).
This large cohort shows differing clinical patterns in JP, YOPD, and EOPD cases. We propose that cutoffs of <20, <40, and <50 years should preferably be used to define JP, YOPD, and EOPD.
Terminal heat stress leads to sizeable yield loss in late-sown wheat in tropical environments. Several synthetic compounds are known to counteract plant stress emanating from abiotic factors. A field experiment was conducted in Sabour (eastern India) during 2013–2016 to investigate the field efficacy of two synthetic compounds, calcium chloride (CaCl2) and arginine, for improving grain yield of two contrasting wheat cultivars (DBW 14 and K 307) facing terminal heat stress. For this, foliar spray of 18.0 mM CaCl2 at booting (CCB) or anthesis (CCA), 9.0 mM CaCl2 at both booting and anthesis (CCB+A), 2.5 mM arginine at booting (ARGB) or anthesis (ARGA) and 1.25 mM arginine at both booting and anthesis (ARGB+A) treatments along with no-spray and water-spray treatments were evaluated in late-sown wheat. The highest grain yield was recorded in treatment CCB+A, followed by CCA and ARGB+A. However, the effect of these compounds was marginal on grain yield when applied only at the booting stage. Grains/ear and thousand-grain weight were found to be the critical determinants for yield in late-sown wheat. During the anthesis to grain filling period, flag-leaf chlorophyll degradation and increase in relative permeability in no-spray treatment were 34–36% and 29–52%, respectively, but these values were reduced considerably in CCB+A treatment followed CCA. Thus, foliar spray of 9.0 mM CaCl2 both at booting and anthesis stages may be recommended for alleviating the negative impacts of terminal heat stress in late-sown wheat and improving its productivity (>13%).
Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is associated with CVD and is mainly genetically determined. Studies suggest a role of dietary fatty acids (FA) in the regulation of Lp(a); however, no studies have investigated the association between plasma Lp(a) concentration and n-6 FA. We aimed to investigate whether plasma Lp(a) concentration was associated with dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA) in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). We included FH subjects with (n 68) and without (n 77) elevated Lp(a) defined as ≥75 nmol/l and healthy subjects (n 14). Total FA profile was analysed by GC–flame ionisation detector analysis, and the daily intake of macronutrients (including the sum of n-6 FA: 18 : 2n-6, 20 : 2n-6, 20 : 3n-6 and 20 : 4n-6) were computed from completed FFQ. FH subjects with elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with FH subjects without elevated Lp(a) (P = 0·03). Furthermore, both FH subjects with and without elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with controls (P < 0·001). The multivariable analyses showed associations between dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of AA (P = 0·02) and between plasma levels of Lp(a) and AA (P = 0·006). Our data suggest a novel link between plasma Lp(a) concentration, dietary n-6 FA and plasma AA concentration, which may explain the small diet-induced increase in Lp(a) levels associated with lifestyle changes. Although the increase may not be clinically relevant, this association may be mechanistically interesting in understanding more of the role and regulation of Lp(a).
Background: Recent advances in neurophysiological techniques have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of Huntington’s disease (HD). Studies of the motor cortical excitability and central motor pathways have shown variable results. Objectives: Our aims were to evaluate the cortical excitability changes in HD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and correlate the changes with cognitive impairment. Methods: The study included 32 HD patients and 30 age- and gender-matched controls. The demographic and clinical profiles of the patients were recorded. All subjects were evaluated by TMS and resting motor threshold (RMT), central motor conduction time (CMCT), silent period (SP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation were determined. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to all subjects. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.1±14.1 years, and that of controls 39.4±12.4 years (p=0.61). There was no significant difference in RMT and CMCT between the two groups. There was a mild prolongation of the contralateral SP in HD, but it was not significant. SICI was significantly reduced in HD (p<0.0001). A significant impairment in attention, verbal fluency, executive function, visuospatial function, learning, and memory was observed in HD patients. However, there was no correlation between cortical excitability changes and cognitive impairment. Conclusions: TMS is a valuable method of evaluating cortical excitability changes in HD. These patients have reduced SICI and significant impairment of cognition in multiple domains.
A plausible mechanism underlying flavonoid-associated cognitive effects is increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, behavioural and CBF effects following flavanone-rich juice consumption have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of flavanone-rich juice is associated with acute cognitive benefits and increased regional CBF in healthy, young adults. An acute, single-blind, randomised, cross-over design was applied with two 500-ml drink conditions – high-flavanone (HF; 70·5 mg) drink and an energy-, and vitamin C- matched, zero-flavanone control. A total of twenty-four healthy young adults aged 18–30 years underwent cognitive testing at baseline and 2-h after drink consumption. A further sixteen, healthy, young adults were recruited for functional MRI assessment, whereby CBF was measured with arterial spin labelling during conscious resting state at baseline as well as 2 and 5 h after drink consumption. The HF drink was associated with significantly increased regional perfusion in the inferior and middle right frontal gyrus at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink. In addition, the HF drink was associated with significantly improved performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink, but no effects were observed on any other behavioural cognitive tests. These results demonstrate that consumption of flavanone-rich citrus juice in quantities commonly consumed can acutely enhance blood flow to the brain in healthy, young adults. However, further studies are required to establish a direct causal link between increased CBF and enhanced behavioural outcomes following citrus juice ingestion.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
Background: Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) is a group of disorders that cannot be attributed to any structural or biochemical abnormality, but has an underlying psychiatric illness. The profile of PMD varies according to country and socioeconomic factors. Methods: The present study reports the clinical profile of patients with PMD from India. Seventy-three patients with documented or clinically established PMD were seen over a period of 14 years with detailed neurological and psychiatric examinations. Results: The mean age at presentation was 29.1±15.1 years (women, 51%). Approximately 30% were ≤18 years of age (boys, 63.6%). The onset of symptoms was abrupt in 61.6% and the initial body part most often affected was right upper limb (adults, 29.4%; children, 31.8%). Tremor was observed in 31.4% of adults and 9% of children, whereas myoclonus was more common in children (36.4%). Tremors were more often seen in women (42.3%) than in men (20%), whereas myoclonus was almost equally prevalent in girls (37.5%) and boys (35.7%). Depression was the most common psychiatric comorbidity (men, 16%; women, 15.4%). About 42.5% required hospital admission and 57.5% had significant reduction or complete cessation of PMD after counseling, antidepressants, and/ or placebo. Conclusions: PMD was equally prevalent among women and men. Tremor was most often observed in adults, whereas myoclonus was most often observed in children. Electrophysiology and placebo were useful supplementary tools for diagnosing PMD.
Intrinsically conductive polymers have received increased attention in the biomedical field due to their mechanical flexibility, electronic and ionic conductivity. On the other hand, bio-derived polymers such as silk proteins (fibroin and sericin) are an important set of materials to realize mechanically deformable, biocompatible and biodegradable systems. Here, we show a ‘green’ approach to fabricate micropatterned, flexible biosensors using photoreactive silk proteins in conjunction with conductive polymers. A functional ink comprised of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene: poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) with silk sericin as a carrier enables the formation of high resolution conducting micropatterns on a silk fibroin substrate via photolithography. The flexible and conformable organic device formed can be used to sense biomolecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. The micropatterned functional silk composites are made using an all water-based fabrication approach, and shown to be cell friendly and degradable. Such systems can find applications in implantable optical devices, bio-sensors, and bio-optoelectronic devices.
Division XI, the predecessor to Division D until 2012, was formed in 1994 at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague by merging Commission 44 Astronomy from Space and Commission 48 High Energy Astrophysics. Historically, space astrophysics started with the high energy wavelengths (far UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray astronomy) which are only accessible from space. However, in modern astronomy, to study high energy astrophysical processes, almost all wavelengths are used (including gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared, submillimeter and radio). In addition other ground-based facilities, including gravitational wave antennas, neutrino detectors and high-energy cosmic ray arrays are joining in this era of multi-messenger astrophysics, as well as space missions with the primary goals to discover and study exoplanets, are under the umbrella of Division XI.
The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is developed in the plasma physics laboratory of the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics for studying basic plasma physics phenomena like waves, instabilities and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma. Details description of the device and its plasma characteristics are presented. The machine provides flexibilities in terms of magnetic configuration and plasma sources. Recently, low frequency drift waves are excited in the weak density gradient region of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced low density plasmas and their nonlinear coupling is studied. Results of this experiment and some more experiments done in the device are summarized. Reasoning behind a possible upgrade plan of the device for studying shear Alfven waves (SAW) and magnetic drift waves in future is also discussed.
We have prepared stable ultrafine narrow dispersed copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) using a facile chemical reduction technique below room temperature (300 K), without any template. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the growth of highly crystalline Cu-NPs with an average diameter of 2.2 nm. Interestingly, these Cu-NPs demonstrate both interband electronic transitions along with usual surface plasmon resonance, a unique phenomenon previously unobserved in any noble metal nanoparticles. These Cu-NPs do not get oxidized easily and could be suitable candidates for different optical devices, heat transfer liquids, and biological applications.
A large outbreak of cholera reported during April–July 2009 in the Kendrapada district of Odisha, India was investigated. Forty-one rectal swabs and 41 water samples, collected from diarrhoeal patients and from different villages were bacteriologically analysed for the isolation of bacterial enteriopathogens, antibiogram profile and detection of various toxic genes. The bacteriological analysis of rectal swabs and environmental water samples revealed the presence of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. The V. cholerae strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on V. cholerae strains revealed the presence of ctxA and tcpA genes. The mismatch amplification of mutation assay (MAMA) PCR on clinical and environmental isolates of V. cholerae revealed that the strains were El Tor biotype, which harboured the ctxB gene of the classical strain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results indicated that the V. cholerae isolates belonged to the same clone. This investigation gives a warning that the El Tor variant of V. cholerae has spread to the coastal district causing a large outbreak that requires close monitoring and surveillance on diarrhoeal outbreaks in Odisha.
High prevalence of hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient (ID) mothers has serious implications for mental health of the progeny. Independent supplementation of iodine and n-3 fatty acids (FA) markedly improves growth and cognitive performance of school children. Discerning effects of n-3 FA and iodine on the developing cerebellum have not been ascertained. The present study investigates effects of these two micronutrients separately as well as together in an ID rat model. We studied the effects of these micronutrients on progeny of ID dams by instituting the following supplementation diets: (1) low-iodine diet (LID), (2) LID+potassium iodide (KI), (3) LID+n-3 FA and (4) LID+KI+n-3 FA. Pups were investigated for morphological and biochemical parameters at the peak of cerebellar histogenesis on postnatal day (P) 16 and for neurobehavioural as well as motor coordination parameters at P40. Results indicate that n-3 FA alone, without improvement in circulating thyroid hormone (TH), significantly improves functional, morphological and biochemical indices of the developing cerebellum. Further, results show that co-supplementation with iodine and n-3 FA rescues not only the loss of neurotrophic support, but also salvages motor coordination, memory and learning. This additive effect results in significantly improving neurotrophic support and seems to be mediated by parallel significant increase in TH receptor (TR)α and normalisation of TRβ, retinoic orphan receptor α and p75 neurotrophin receptor, as well as noteworthy prevention of apoptotic cell death and strengthening of anti-oxidative defence. The overall results indicate important mitigating role that n-3 FA may play in enhancing TH nuclear receptor-mediated signalling in the developing cerebellum.
We present a large outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit that resulted in 31 colonized infants, 10 invasive infections, and 5 attributable deaths over a 5-month period. Although the source of infection was unknown, overcrowding and understaffing appeared to have been aggravating factors.
Populations of the six equine breeds registered by the Indian National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources have drastically decreased due to indiscriminate breeding and their low utilization. In this study, 15 biometric indices along with typical breed characteristics were recorded for 50 animals of each breed except Bhutia breed (35) for their phenotypic characterization. On the basis of their heights at wither, Kathiawari and Marwari breeds were grouped under “horse”, while Zanskari, Manipuri, Bhutia and Spiti fell under “pony” breeds. Marwari was the tallest and significantly different from other breeds in most of the biometric indices. Spiti was the shortest breed among all the six horse and pony breeds. Sex-wise differences were also observed in some of the biometric indices in different breeds. In Marwari and Kathiawari breeds, both stallions and mares can rotate their ears at an angle of 180° making the ear tips meet in the centre, which is a typical characteristic of the two breeds. This report aims at providing reference data for identification and comparison of different breeds of equines in India with a view to raise awareness among animal geneticists and breeders for production of true to breed animals, conservation and better management of these precious genetic resources.
A nonlinear optical crystal of L-valine was grown from an aqueous solution containing a small amount of phosphoric acid by the slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the unit cell parameters. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirmed the lattice parameters to be a = 9.6687(7) Å, b = 5.2709(4) Å, c = 12.0371(10) Å and β = 90.805(4)°. The results of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) indicate the presence of a small amount of phosphorus in the grown crystal. The Vickers micro hardness test was performed to study the mechanical strength of the crystals. Chemical etching studies were carried out to analyze the dislocation structure. The laser damaged threshold of the grown crystal was measured to be 11.11 GW/cm2 for 10 ns pulse at 1064 nm, which is higher than that of the standard nonlinear optical crystals like KDP. Second harmonic generation of the grown crystals was also 1.44 times that of KDP.
Originally, Division XI concerned itself only with high-energy astrophysics (in particular UV, X-ray and gamma rays), to which was later added the domain of lower-energy astrophysics where observations are generally performed from space (optical, infrared, submillimeter and parts of the radio spectrum). The Division also includes ground-based high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray experiments, gravitational wave, and Moon-based astronomical observations. The individual expertise of the present OC reflects primarily the UV and higher energy domains. However, since there are plans within the IAU to restructure divisions, we propose that, following the changes in the Divisional structure and renewal of the OC, the new members will be recruited to broaden the spectral range of research covered by the Division.
The last decade has seen some dramatic changes in the demands placed on core networks. Data has permanently replaced voice as the dominant traffic unit. The growth of applications like file sharing and storage area networking took many by surprise. Video distribution, a relatively old application, is now being delivered via packet technology, changing traffic profiles even for traditional services.
The shift in dominance from voice to data traffic has many consequences. In the data world, applications, hardware, and software change rapidly. We are seeing an unprecedented unpredictability and variability in traffic patterns. This means network operators must maintain an infrastructure that quickly adapts to changing subscriber demands, and contain infrastructure costs by efficiently applying network resources to meet those demands.
Current core network transport equipment supports high-capacity global-scale core networks by relying on higher speed interfaces such as 40 and 100 Gb/s. This is necessary but in and of itself not sufficient. Today, it takes considerable time and human involvement to provision a core network to accommodate new service demands or exploit new resources. Agile, autonomous, resource management is imperative for the next-generation network.
Today's core network architectures are based on static point-to-point transport infrastructure. Higher-layer services are isolated within their place in the traditional Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network stack. While the stack has clear benefits in collecting conceptually similar functions into layers and invoking a service model between them, stovepiped management has resulted in multiple parallel networks within a single network operator's infrastructure.