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The neurodevelopmental hypothesis defends the existance of factors that would cause an early impairment on the normal brain development. The neurodegenerative hypothesis proposes the existance of later and progressive pathological phenomena, responsible of the appearance of clinical manifestations and changes on neuroimaging. Both hypotheses would be complementary. Neurodevelopment is completed during adolescence. Within this period, these deficts on executive functions would become apparent, reflecting a neurodevelopmental impairment. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter, present throughout the normal postnatal brain development and maduration. In schizophrenic patients and unaffected relatives, a glutamatergic hypofunction has been found and so, an alteration of the dopaminergic mesocortical limbic and nigrostriatal pathways.
Usage of molecules that are capable of reversing the glutamatergic hypofunction would be potentially benefitial for either positive or negative symptomathology in schizophrenia.
We have performed a review of several clinical trials (on humans and animals) using glutamatergic drugs alone and combined with neuroleptics to diminish behavioural disturbances related to NMDA blockage.
Usage of glycine binding site agonists (glycine, D- cicloserine, D-serine) has been proposed. D-serine is effective both as monotherapy and combined with neuroleptics. D-cicloserine is not effective on negative symptoms. Usage of high doses of oral glycine (30–60 mg a day) on its own has not shown any clinical change but there is an improvement on negative and positive symptoms if combined with neuroleptics.
Nowadays, there is no glutamatergic agonist used in schizophrenia treatment. Out of the three previously mentioned drugs, only D-serine has shown some efficacy.
Psychotic diseases in the elderly are underdiagnosed due to the limited use of medical resources. Advanced age makes psychoses of any cause less pure and differentiated, since old age adds a cognitive-impairment component to the basal psychotic defect.
We intend to estimate the prevalence of paranoid symptoms in older patients, and to study the many medical conditions associated with psychosis.
We conducted a literature review and we have performed a review of several clinical trials.
We found 12.1% of paranoid symptoms in the elderly with cognitive impairment. In absence of this factor, we found a prevalence of 14.1% for suspicion tendencies, 6.9% for paranoid thoughts and 5.5% for evident delusions. These figures were significantly higher in old black people.
We present a table of the main medical conditions that can produce psychotic symptoms. Some cases of apparently typical delusional disorder can appear as a long-term complication of some of these diseases. If organic factors are subtle and long lasting, the clinical may reproduce a fairly typical delusional disorder and may respond to treatment with neuroleptic drugs.
It seems possible that organic brain factors are more common that we believe, becoming essential a comprehensive study of the old psychotic patient. We should pay more attention to psychotic symptoms in elderly patients and avoid conclusions based on cross-evaluations. Diagnosis will be defined by evolution in most of the cases.
Late psychoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders whose nosology has been controversial throughout history. The concept of dementia praecox introduced by Kraepelin, and based on the progressive deterioration and early onset, has been so dominant in the last decades that few issues have created as much controversy as that schizophrenia can begin in late age. Our purpose is to identify the different obstacles in the research in late psychoses to be able to overcome these limitations and improve the study in this area.
A literature review was achieved using the National Library of Medicine and PubMed search system.
We found historical limitations, because over the last century, different schools of psychiatry have used different nomenclatures and age limits to define late-onset psychotic disorders. Prevailing beliefs in the low frequency of these diseases or in the association of the onset of psychotic symptoms in the elderly with cognitive impairment have interfered with epidemiological research in this area. Moreover, older psychotic patients are often excluded from epidemiological and pharmacological research. Lack of insight and social isolation determine sampling bias and reliability problems.
Seemengly strong knowledge on late-onset schizophrenia is based, in fact, in samples from patients with late paraphrenia or mixed samples. It becomes mandatory to define concepts and establish diagnostic criteria, and to conduct multicenter studies to increase the size of our samples.
After the commercialization of Aripiprazole in Spain, two observational studies were proposed, one was conducted when the drug was first launched, and the other when the starting dose of Aripiprazole was modified, in order to understand the switching strategies, the effectiveness, tolerability and adherence to treatment in standard use conditions.
Patients and Methods:
Two multicenter, retrospective, observational studies were carried out involving 200 psychiatrists throughout Spain with approximate 1000 patients treated with Aripiprazole during the previous four months in each one of the studies during 2005 and 2006 respectively.
Both groups of patients had a very similar demographic profile that matches with the general schizophrenic population. In the first study, the main reasons for switching medication were low efficacy (56% of cases) and intolerance (35%), and 44% and 43% respectively in the second study. Despite the poor response to previous treatment, clinical evaluation of effectiveness and tolerability with Aripiprazole was very positive: In the first study, 76% of patients had very good or good effectiveness and tolerability was very good or good in 90%. In the second study, these values were 75% and 93%, respectively. Patterns of change from the previous treatment were switching in 75% of cases in the first study and in 60% in the second study.
Effectiveness of treatment with Aripiprazole is good in patients who had a poor response to their previous antipsychotic treatments. The most frequent and effective pattern for change patients to Aripiprazole treatments is switching.
The conditions for the use of study medications are different in a clinical trial than when the same drugs are marketed and administered to larger population groups. This study was proposed after the recent change in the range of doses marketing of Aripiprazole in our country and following a change in the range of doses used.
To identify the type of patients treated with aAripiprazole during 4 months (May 06) after the change in the SmPC (10-30 mg dose) and to establish the doses used. To identify the proportion of patients switching to aAripiprazole from previous antipsychotic treatments due to reduced efficacy or low tolerance to the previous drugs.
Patients and Methods:
This is a retrospective, observational, multicenter study. Data will be collected from the medical records of 1000 patients treated with aAripiprazole during the four months prior to the study initiation, with a minimum of 1 month treatment. The information will be gathered by 200 psychiatrists each one providing 5 cases. Data collection was initiated in October 2006 and is expected to last two months. The sample size based on the primary objective obtained will enable a 95% confidence interval with a maximum acceptable error of 3% to estimate the proportion based on the primary objective.
The collection of data will enable us to know how psychiatrists prescribe aAripiprazole, considering the type of patient, dosage regime, switching strategy of antipsychotic treatment (by identifying the ratios of treatment switches) under standard conditions of use.
Endocannabinoid system has been highlighted as one of the most relevant research topics by neurobiologists, pharmacists, basic scientists and clinicians. The association between endocannabinoids and its congeners and mood disorders is relatively recent. However, evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies is increasing and many researchers point out endocannabinoid system and particularly endocannabinoids and congeners as promising pharmacological targets.
Aims and objectives
The main objective of this study is to compare the plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids and congeners between a sample of patients with depression and a sample of control subjects, and the influence of variables such as age, body mass index, gender, severity of symptoms, and antidepressant medication.
Plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids and congeners will be analyzed in 69 patients with depression from primary care and 47 controls using mass spectrometry analysis.
Statistically significant differences in 2-arachidonoylglycerol and monoacylglycerols were found between both samples. Somatic symptoms of depression seems to be more related to these compounds that to cognitive-affective symptoms. In addition, differences between mildly and moderately depressed patients were found in concentrations of AEA, LEA, DGLEA and POEA. Patients with antidepressant medication showed higher levels of 2-AG, DGLEA and OEA.
The results of this study provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that in depression there is a dysregulation of the inflammatory signaling and, consequently the immune system. The results of this study could also support the realization of translational research to better understand the mechanisms of this widely distributed system.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS) has been highlighted as one of the most relevant research topics by neurobiologists, pharmacists, basic scientists and clinicians (Skaper and Di Marzo, 2012). Recent work has associated major depressive disorder with the ECS (Ashton and Moore, 2011). Despite the close relationship between depression and bipolar disorders, as far as we know, there is no characterization of ECS and congeners in a sample of patients with bipolar disorders.
Aims and objectives
The objective of this work is to characterize the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners in a sample of patients with bipolar disorders.
The clinical group was composed by 19 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorders using SCID-IV (First et al., 1999). The control group was formed by 18 relatives of first- or second-degree of the patients.
The following endocannabinoids and congeners were quantified: N-palmitoleoylethanolamide (POEA), N-palmitolylethanolamide (PEA), N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA), N-stearoylethanolamide (SEA), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), N-dihomo-γ-linolenoylethanolamide (DGLEA), N-docosatetraenoylethanolamide (DEA), N-linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), N-docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG), and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG).
The result showed statistically significant lower levels of AEA, DEA and DHEA in clinical sample. Previous research also identified lower levels of AEA in depressed women (Hill et al., 2008, 2009). Until date, it is unknown if DEA and DHEA have some effect on EC receptors, and whether they have some direct effects on endocannabinoids.
It would be necessary to carry our other research with a larger sample, which could allow the control of potential confounding variables.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
After Emil Kraepelin's division of psychoses into a group of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity, the classification of psychoses with atypical symptoms, which could not be assigned in this dichotomy created a debate, that lasts until our days. These “atypical psychoses” had been described under many terms and concepts in different countries.
In 1926, Kleist coined the term “cycloid psychosis” to describe cases which did not meet the typical presentation shown in Kraepelian's dichotomy. Three decades later, Karl Leonhard established the concept of cycloid psychosis as a nosologically independent group of endogenous psychosis.
Make an historical review of the concept of cycloid psychosis. Discuss the clinical features and debate the classification of this clinical entity.
A bibliographical review is made of the cycloid psychosis, based on the data published in Pubmed.
According to Leonhard, cycloid psychosis generally present with bipolar, polymorphous clinical symptomatology, and run a phasic course with complete remissions after each episode. Furthermore, Leonhard delineated three subtypes: anxiety-happiness psychosis, confusion psychosis and motility psychosis presenting with different symptoms. In 1981, Perris and Brockington formulated the first set of operational criteria for cycloid psychoses. In recent years, new data about this entity have been acknowledged due to information displayed by different clinical studies and imaging techniques.
The phenomenology and classification of cycloid psychosis still needs more evidence for a greater use in clinical practice. However, this clinical entity can solve the void for the diagnosis of many of the so-called “atypical psychoses”.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This study examined the emotional and behavioral functioning among 10–14 year-old children who were born with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500).
Prospective and cross-sectional study of 90 VLBW (<1500 g) survivors born at the Hospital Universitario la Paz in Madrid, Spain, from 2000 to 2005 who were assessed by interviewers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parents also reported on their children's functioning. Children who showed an abnormal SDQ score on the total difficulties subscale or who had psychiatric history were also assessed using the K-SADS-PL.
The proportion of children with abnormal-self-rated-SDQ scores was as follows: almost 25% of children showed an abnormal score on hyperactivity, nearly 15% on emotional problems, 15% on conduct problems and 10% on peer problems. Overall, 15% of children showed an abnormal score on the total difficulties subscale. Most children (99%) showed a normal score on the prosocial subscale. These proportions were higher when the questionnaire was rated by parents. Thirty-eight percent of children were assessed using the K-SADS and very few of them meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder. Biomedical variables were associated in the expected direction to children's SDQ scores such as birth weight, head circumference and Apgar scores.
To conclude, being born with very low birth weight seems to be related to the emotional and behavioral functioning that these children appear to show between 10 and 15 years later.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Supplementation with copper (Cu) improves deer antler characteristics, but it could modify meat quality and increase its Cu content to levels potentially harmful for humans. Here, we studied the effects of Cu bolus supplementation by means on quality and composition of sternocephalicus (ST) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles (n=13 for each one) from yearling male red deer fed with a balanced diet. Each intraruminal bolus, containing 3.4 g of Cu, was administered orally in the treatment group to compare with the control group. Meat traits studied were pH at 24 h postmortem (pH24), colour, chemical composition, cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) composition, amino acid (AA) profile and mineral content. In addition, the effect of Cu supplementation on mineral composition of liver and serum (at 0 and 90 days of treatment) was analysed. No interactions between Cu supplementation and muscle were observed for any trait. Supplementation with Cu increased the protein content of meat (P<0.01). However, Cu content of meat, liver and serum was not modified by supplementation. In fact, Cu content of meat (1.20 and 1.34 mg/kg for Cu supplemented and control deer, respectively) was much lower in both groups than 5 mg/kg of fresh weight allowed legally for food of animal origin. However, bolus of Cu tended to increase the meat content of zinc and significantly increased (P<0.05) the hepatic contents of sodium and lead. Muscles studied had different composition and characteristics. The RA muscle had significantly higher protein content (P<0.001), monounsaturated FA content (P<0.05) and essential/non-essential AA ratio (P<0.01) but lower pH24 (P<0.01) and polyunsaturated FA content (P=0.001) than the ST muscle. In addition, RA muscle had 14.4% less cholesterol (P=0.001) than ST muscle. Also, mineral profile differed between muscles with higher content of iron, significantly higher (P<0.001) content of zinc and lower content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus (P<0.05) for ST muscle compared with RA. Therefore, supplementation with Cu modified deer meat characteristics, but it did not increase its concentration to toxic levels, making it a safe practice from this perspective. Despite the lower content of polyunsaturated FA, quality was better for RA than for ST muscle based on its higher content of protein with more essential/non-essential AA ratio and lower pH24 and cholesterol content.
The main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially Ca and P) and collagen content. However, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. One such trace mineral is Cu. Here, we studied the effects of Cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red deer fed a balanced diet. Deer (n=35) of different ages (21 yearlings and 14 adults) were studied. A total of 18 stags (11 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with Cu (0.83 mg Cu/kg BW) every 42 days, whereas the remaining 17 (10 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with physiological saline solution (control group). The Cu content of serum was analysed at the beginning of the trial and 84 days after the first injection to assess whether the injected Cu was mobilized in blood. Also, the mechanical and structural properties of antlers and the mineral content in their cortical walls were examined at three (yearlings) or four (adults) points along the antler beam. The effect of Cu supplementation was different in yearlings and adults. In yearlings, supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 28%, but did not affect antler properties. However, in adults, Cu supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 38% and tended to increase the cortical thickness of antlers (P=0.06). Therefore, we conclude that, even in animals receiving balanced diets, supplementation with Cu could increase antler cortical thickness in adult deer, although not in yearlings. This may improve the trophy value of antlers, as well as having potential implications for bones in elderly humans, should Cu supplementation have similar effects on bones as those observed in antlers.
We propose a taxonomic revision of the dixenous trypanosomatids currently classified as Endotrypanum and Leishmania, including parasites that do not fall within the subgenera L. (Leishmania) and L. (Viannia) related to human leishmaniasis or L. (Sauroleishmania) formed by leishmanias of lizards: L. colombiensis, L. equatorensis, L. herreri, L. hertigi, L. deanei, L. enriettii and L. martiniquensis. The comparison of these species with newly characterized isolates from sloths, porcupines and phlebotomines from central and South America unveiled new genera and subgenera supported by past (RNA PolII gene) and present (V7V8 SSU rRNA, Hsp70 and gGAPDH) phylogenetic analyses of the organisms. The genus Endotrypanum is restricted to Central and South America, comprising isolates from sloths and transmitted by phlebotomines that sporadically infect humans. This genus is the closest to the new genus Porcisia proposed to accommodate the Neotropical porcupine parasites originally described as L. hertigi and L. deanei. A new subgenus Leishmania (Mundinia) is created for the L. enriettii complex that includes L. martiniquensis. The new genus Zelonia harbours trypanosomatids from Neotropical hemipterans placed at the edge of the Leishmania–Endotrypanum-Porcisia clade. Finally, attention is drawn to the status of L. siamensis and L. australiensis as nomem nudums.
The reminiscence functions scale (RFS) is a 43-item self-report instrument designed to assess the use of reminiscence for different functions. This study aims, on one hand, to analyze the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the RFS and, on the other, to examine the relationship between the functions of reminiscence and mental health.
RFS scale and measures of depressive symptomology, despair, and life satisfaction were administered to a sample of persons over the age of sixty (n = 364).
After eliminating three conflictive items from the original scale, the confirmatory factor analysis results present a factorial structure comprising eight traditional factors and adequate reliability scores (from 0.73 to 0.87). Using structural equation modeling, we find that these reminiscence factors are organized in three second-order factors (self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial). Results show that the self-positive factor relates negatively and the self-negative factor relates positively with symptoms of mental health problems.
These results, on one hand, confirm that the RFS scale is a useful instrument to assess reminiscence functions in a sample of Spanish older adults and, on the other, that the three-factor model of reminiscence is a better predictor of mental health than the alternative four-factor model.
There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35–95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5–3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95–96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98–99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.
Recent research has shown an association between unemployment and suicide, but the mediating factors in this relationship are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of unemployment and economic recession on suicide rates in the Spanish region of Galicia between 1975 and 2012
We analysed age-standardised suicide rates in men and women and in four age groups: less than 25 years, 25–45 years, 45–65 years and more than 65 years and performed a joinpoint analysis to determine trend changes throughout 1975–2012 period. Also we analysed the association between suicide, recession and unemployment by means of a temporal trend model with a Generalised Additive Model.
Suicide rates increased from 145 suicides in 1975 to a high in 1993, with 377 deaths by suicide, representing 1.38% of all causes of death, and thereafter they tend to decrease to 335 suicides in 2012. Joinpoint analyses revealed that suicide rates changed differently across sex and age groups. For men, the annual percentage of change (APC) between 1975 and 1988 (CI 95% 1986–1994) was 5.45 (CI 95% = 3.5, −7.2) but from 1988 the APC became negative [−0.66 (CI 95% = −1.3, −0.1)]. For women, APC between 1974 and 1990 (CI 95% 1986–1992) was 4.86 (CI 95% = 3.2, −6.4) and −1.46 subsequently (CI 95% = −2.2, −0.5). Women aged 24 years or less showed stable suicide rates while men from 45–65 years showed two incidence peaks. When we studied the independent correlation between unemployment, recession and suicide, we found a significant association between unemployment and suicide, but not between recession and suicide for both sexes together and for men while for women there was no significant correlation between suicide and unemployment or recession. Finally, when we studied the effect of the interaction between unemployment and recession on suicide we found economic recession and unemployment interacted with regards to suicide rates (F = 5.902; df = 4.167; p = 0.00098) and after adjusting by sex, the effect was confirmed among men (F = 4.827; df = 2.823; p = 0.0087), but not among women (F = 0.001; df = 1.000; p = 0.979).
Although suicide rates in Galicia are gradually decreasing in the last decades, there are important sex and age differences. Unemployment was related with suicide during economic recession periods according to our results.
We present a novel general resource analysis for logic programs based on sized types. Sized types are representations that incorporate structural (shape) information and allow expressing both lower and upper bounds on the size of a set of terms and their subterms at any position and depth. They also allow relating the sizes of terms and subterms occurring at different argument positions in logic predicates. Using these sized types, the resource analysis can infer both lower and upper bounds on the resources used by all the procedures in a program as functions on input term (and subterm) sizes, overcoming limitations of existing resource analyses and enhancing their precision. Our new resource analysis has been developed within the abstract interpretation framework, as an extension of the sized types abstract domain, and has been integrated into the Ciao preprocessor, CiaoPP. The abstract domain operations are integrated with the setting up and solving of recurrence equations for inferring both size and resource usage functions. We show that the analysis is an improvement over the previous resource analysis present in CiaoPP and compares well in power to state of the art systems.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining
the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen
is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible
way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the
disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at
controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on
brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus
elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From
February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180
individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from
red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually.
From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of
97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of
positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the
prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not
be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or
goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to
the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.
A total of 200 (Landrace × Large White dam × Pietrain × Large White sire) gilts of 50 ± 3 days of age (23.3 ± 1.47 kg BW) were used to investigate the effects of castration (intact gilt, IG v. castrated gilt, CG) and slaughter weight (SW; 106 v. 122 kg BW) on productive performance, carcass and meat quality. Four treatments were arranged factorially and five replicates of 10 pigs each per treatment. Half of the gilts were ovariectomized at 58 days of age (8 days after the beginning of the trial at 29.8 ± 1.64 kg BW), whereas the other half remained intact. The pigs were slaughtered at 106 or 122 kg BW. Meat samples were taken at Musculus longissimus thoracis at the level of the last rib and subcutaneous fat samples were taken at the tail insertion. For the entire experimental period, CG had higher (P < 0.05) BW gain and higher (P < 0.001) backfat and Musculus gluteus medius fat thickness than IG. However, IG had higher (P < 0.05) loin and trimmed primal cut yields than CG. Meat quality was similar for IG and CG but the proportion of linoleic acid in subcutaneous fat was higher (P < 0.001) for IG. Pigs slaughtered at 122 kg BW had higher (P < 0.001) feed intake and poorer feed efficiency than pigs slaughtered at 106 kg BW. An increase in SW improved (P < 0.001) carcass yield but decreased (P < 0.05) trimmed primal cut yield. Meat from pigs slaughtered at the heavier BW was redder (a*; P < 0.001) and had more (P < 0.01) intramuscular fat and less thawing (P < 0.05) and cooking (P < 0.10) loss than meat from pigs slaughtered at the lighter BW. In addition, pigs slaughtered at 122 kg BW had less (P < 0.01) linoleic acid content in subcutaneous fat than pigs slaughtered at 106 kg BW. Castration of gilts and slaughtering at heavier BW are useful practices for the production of heavy pigs destined to the dry-cured industry in which a certain amount of fat in the carcass is required. In contrast, when the carcasses are destined to fresh meat production, IG slaughtered at 106 kg BW is a more efficient alternative.