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The effect of artificial and natural sources of adult food on the survival and reproduction of the tropical fruit fly, Anastrephaserpentina (Wiedemann) was studied. Caged adult flies were exposed during their whole lifespan to water and one of the following diets: sucrose, intact fruit, open fruit, bird faeces, sucrose plus intact fruit, sucrose plus open fruit, sucrose plus yeast hydrolysate, and sucrose plus bird faeces. All flies exposed to intact fruit or bird faeces died within the first five days of adult life without laying eggs. Females exposed to open fruit exhibited the greatest mean longevity (56.7 days). The highest net fecundity rate was recorded from individuals exposed to sucrose plus yeast hydrolysate (164 eggs per female), followed by those exposed to bird faeces plus sucrose and open fruit (38 and 26 eggs per female, respectively). Some individuals were able to lay viable eggs late in life (>105 days of age). Only populations in which adult flies had access to either sucrose plus yeast hydrolysate, open fruit, or sucrose plus bird faeces exhibited positive intrinsic rates of increase (r). Flies offered a combination of dry sucrose plus open fruit exhibited greatly reduced net fecundity levels when compared with those individuals exposed to open fruit. Even more significantly, populations of flies offered the combination of open fruit plus sucrose exhibited negative rates of increase while those exposed to open fruit alone, grew. We postulate that this reduction in egg production can be explained by a ‘junk food syndrome’.
Two Spanish eastern Pyrenean populations, Andorra and Pallars Sobirà, have been tested for G1m(1,2,3,17), G2m(23), G3m(5,6,10,11,13,14,15,16,21,24,28) and Km(1) immunoglobulin allotypes. Km allele and Gm haplotype frequencies in both samples fit well into the Western Mediterranean and, more strictly, Pyrenean ranges with some peculiarities: Andorra showed an elevated frequency (14.7%) of the typical Asian and European Gm21,28;1,2,17;.. haplotype, while Pallars Sobirà was characterized by high values (3.7%) of Gm5*;1,17;.., a typical sub-Saharan Gm haplotype. Gm diversity assessed through genetic distance and variance analyses revealed a significant geographic partition (4.3%) of Mediterraneans among south, north-east, and north-west groups. It is interesting to note the relatively low genetic variance (2.1%) found between south and north-western Mediterraneans that could reflect ancient population relationships. More locally, genetic boundaries and diversity analyses failed to indicate any geographic pattern and/or genetic differentiation related with the political border in the Pyrenees. The present pattern of variation in this area is probably the result of genetic isolation processes, in addition to some specific demographic phenomena, in the Pyrenean valleys.
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