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Little is known about the effects of depression before birth on the quality of the mother–infant interaction.
To understand whether depression, either in pregnancy or in lifetime before pregnancy, disrupts postnatal mother–infant interactions.
We recruited 131 pregnant women (51 healthy, 52 with major depressive disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, 28 with a history of MDD but healthy pregnancy), at 25 weeks’ gestation. MDD was confirmed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. Neonatal behaviour was assessed at 6 days with the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale, and mother–infant interaction was assessed at 8 weeks and 12 months with the Crittenden CARE-Index.
At 8 weeks and 12 months, dyads in the depression and history-only groups displayed a reduced quality of interaction compared with healthy dyads. Specifically, at 8 weeks, 62% in the depression group and 56% in the history-only group scored in the lowest category of dyadic synchrony (suggesting therapeutic interventions are needed), compared with 37% in the healthy group (P = 0.041); 48% and 32%, respectively, scored the same at 12 months, compared with 14% in the healthy group (P = 0.003). At 6 days, neonates in the depression and history-only groups exhibited decreased social-interactive behaviour, which, together with maternal socioeconomic difficulties, was also predictive of interaction quality, whereas postnatal depression was not.
Both antenatal depression and a lifetime history of depression are associated with a decreased quality of mother–infant interaction, irrespective of postnatal depression. Clinicians should be aware of this, as pregnancy provides an opportunity for identification and intervention to support the developing relationship.
This study aimed to provide an objective means of identifying patterns in academic publication among ENT trainees during their higher surgical training.
A cross-sectional survey was distributed to ENT higher surgical trainees.
A total of 153 ENT specialty trainees participated, giving a response rate of 46.5 per cent. Across all years of training, the mean number of first author publications was three and the mean number of non-first author publications was two. For trainees at specialty trainee year 8 level, these figures were nine and five, respectively. Participants with doctoral degrees and those in academic programmes published more papers but the mean difference was only significant for the doctoral subgroup (p < 0.0001). Those with additional undergraduate degrees and those in less than full-time training had an overall lower number of publications.
Participants in the current survey achieved a higher average number of academic publications than is presently required to successfully complete higher surgical training in ENT. It is hoped that these results act as a guide for trainees planning the research component of their training to ensure that they remain competitive at consultant interview.
The Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER) project is the world's largest hybrid study on the impact of the arts on mental health embedded into a national healthcare system. This programme, funded by the Wellcome Trust, aims to study the impact and the scalability of the arts as an intervention for mental health. The programme will be delivered by a team of clinicians, research scientists, charities, artists, patients and healthcare professionals in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the community, spanning academia, the NHS and the charity sector. SHAPER consists of three studies – Melodies for Mums, Dance for Parkinson's, and Stroke Odysseys – which will recruit over 800 participants, deliver the interventions and draw conclusions on their clinical impact, implementation effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We hope that this work will inspire organisations and commissioners in the NHS and around the world to expand the remit of social prescribing to include evidence-based arts interventions.
We acknowledge and pay respect to the people of the Yugambeh Nation on whose Land we work, meet and study. We recognise the significant role the past and future Elders play in the life of the University and the region. We are mindful that within and without the buildings, the Land always was and always will be Aboriginal Land.1
This paper introduces staying-with the traces of inter/intra-subjective experience, with and within place, in mapping-making philosophy in environmental education. Through a conceptualisation of philosophy as concepts or knots in an infinite composition of knowledge, rather than separate knowledges, we use staying-with the traces2 as method, whereby our embodied patterns of human and more than human relationality across place and time may engage with philosophy. This grounding of philosophy foregrounds the diverse onto-epistemologies of posthumanism and indigenist3 ways of knowing, acknowledging tensions and searching for the possibilities of connectivity between them. Through an embodied arts-based walking practice, our approach challenges the perpetuation of reductionist perspectives, including nature/culture binaries, within environmental education. We stay with the traces of bird, meeting, tree, watery and concrete in mutual inseparable relation and becoming.
As the novel coronavirus disease 2019 changed patient presentation, this study aimed to prospectively identify these changes in a single ENT centre.
A seven-week prospective case series was conducted of urgently referred patients from primary care and accident and emergency department.
There was a total of 133 referrals. Referral rates fell by 93 per cent over seven weeks, from a mean of 5.4 to 0.4 per day. Reductions were seen in referrals from both primary care (89 per cent) and the accident and emergency department (93 per cent). Presentations of otitis externa and epistaxis fell by 83 per cent, and presentations of glandular fever, tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess fell by 67 per cent.
Coronavirus disease 2019 has greatly reduced the number of referrals into secondary care ENT. The cause for this reduction is likely to be due to patients’ increased perceived risk of the virus presence in a medical setting. The impact of this reduction is yet to be ascertained, but will likely result in a substantial increase in emergency pressures once the lockdown is lifted and the general public's perception of the coronavirus disease 2019 risk reduces.
Our objective was to integrate lessons learned from perinatal collaborative care programs across the United States, recognizing the diversity of practice settings and patient populations, to provide guidance on successful implementation.
Collaborative care is a health services delivery system that integrates behavioral health care into primary care. While efficacious, effectiveness requires rigorous attention to implementation to ensure adherence to the core evidence base.
Implementation strategies are divided into three pragmatic stages: preparation, program launch, and program growth and sustainment; however, these steps are non-linear and dynamic.
The discussion that follows is not meant to be prescriptive; rather, all implementation tasks should be thoughtfully tailored to the unique needs and setting of the obstetric community and patient population. In particular, we are aware that implementation on the level described here assumes commitment of both effort and money on the part of clinicians, administrators, and the health system, and that such financial resources are not always available. We conclude with synthesis of a survey of existing collaborative care programs to identify implementation practices of existing programs.
This Element provides an account of Thomas Aquinas's moral philosophy that emphasizes the intrinsic connection between happiness and the human good, human virtue, and the precepts of practical reason. Human beings by nature have an end to which they are directed and concerning which they do not deliberate, namely happiness. Humans achieve this end by performing good human acts, which are produced by the intellect and the will, and perfected by the relevant virtues. These virtuous acts require that the agent grasps the relevant moral principles and uses them in particular cases.
Improving the quality of care on psychiatric inpatient wards has been a major focus in recent mental health policy, a recurrent criticism being that contact between staff and patients is limited in time and therapeutic value. Change is unlikely to be achieved without recruitment and retention of a high quality and well-motivated work force.
The NHS commissioned national inpatient mental health staff morale study is intended to inform service planning and policy by delivering evidence on the morale of the inpatient mental health workforce and the clinical, organisational, architectural and human resources factors that influence it.
100 wards in 17 area ‘Trusts’ are participating in the study, in addition to 40 community teams. The study will take place over two years, and has 6 modules:
1. A quantitative questionnaire for all staff in participating wards and
2. A comparison group in 20 community mental health teams and 20 crisis teams.
3. Case studies of 10 wards scoring in the top and bottom quartile for indicators of morale.
4. Repeated questionnaires for 20 wards in the second year to investigate how morale changes over time.
5. Staff who leave the wards in the course of the first year will be asked their reasons for leaving.
6. Links between rates of staff sickness and morale will be investigated.
Questionnaires have been distributed to 3,500 staff with a response rate of 65%, results from which will be presented in 2009.
Pharmacokinetically important polymorphisms could guide dosing, ensuring adequate CNS bioavailability in a particular individual during a therapeutic trial. Hepatic enzyme (CYP450) polymorphisms have been extensively studied. Less work has been done on the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) - the key efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB).
An eight week prospective multi-centre candidate gene association study of 113 patients with psychiatrist diagnosed DSM-IV MDD was conducted. Subjects were treated with escitalopram (ESCIT) or venlafaxine (VEN) in a naturalistic clinical setting. Treatment outcome was assessed with the 17-item HDRS and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scales. Side effects were rated with a comprehensive adverse reactions scale (UKU). All response ratings were blinded to genotype. P-gp, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 polymorphisms were assayed using microarray methodology.
BBB (P-gp) polymorphisms associated with less antidepressant CNS entry were associated with need for higher medication dosage and less overall clinical improvement. Patients with higher BBB block polymorphism need 1.45 (p = 0.018) times the dose of escitalopram than those with lower blood brain barrier block polymorphism. Patients with lower BBB block genotype had a 1.602 time greater reduction in depression compared to subjects with higher block polymorphisms (p = 0.043). Subjects with lower BBB block and poorer metaboliser status at cytochrome P450 2D6 and 2C19 genotype were significantly more likely to respond on the HDRS (RR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.095–2.339, p = 0.015).
This is the first study to demonstrated that P-gp polymorphisms predict antidepressant dose, and that combined P450 and P-gp polymorphisms predict antidepressant response.
A post-authorisation safety study was carried out as part of the EU Risk Management Plan to examine the long-term (up to 12 months) use of quetiapine XL as prescribed in general practice in England.
To present a description of the drug utilisation characteristics of quetiapine XL.
An observational, population-based cohort design using the technique of Modified Prescription-Event Monitoring (M-PEM). Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by general practitioners (GPs) for quetiapine XL between September 2008 and February 2013. Questionnaires were sent to GPs 12 months following the 1st prescription for each individual patient, requesting drug utilisation information. Cohort accrual was extended to recruit additional elderly patients (special population of interest). Summary descriptive statistics were calculated.
The final M-PEM cohort consisted of 13,276 patients; median age 43 years (IQR: 33, 55) and 59.0% females. Indications for prescribing included bipolar disorder (n = 3820), MDD (n = 2844), schizophrenia (n = 2373) and other (non-licensed) indications (n = 3750). Where specified, 59.3% (7869/13,276) were reported to have used quetiapine IR (immediate release formulation) previously at any time. The median start dose was highest for patients with schizophrenia (300 mg/day [IQR 150, 450]). The final elderly cohort consisted of 3127 patients and 28.5% had indications associated with dementia. The median start dose for elderly patients was highest for patients with schizophrenia or BD (both 100 mg/day [IQR 50, 300]).
The prevalence of off-label prescribing in terms of indication and high doses was common, as was use in special populations such as the very elderly. Whilst off-label use may be unavoidable in certain situations, GPs may need to re-evaluate prescribing in circumstances where there may be safety concerns. This study demonstrates the ongoing importance of observational studies such as M-PEM to gather real-world clinical data to support the post-marketing benefit:risk management of new medications, or existing medications for which license extensions have been approved.
Cardiovascular risk prediction tools are important for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, however, which algorithms are appropriate for people with severe mental illness (SMI) is unclear.
To determine the cost-effectiveness using the net monetary benefit (NMB) approach of two bespoke SMI-specific risk algorithms compared to standard risk algorithms for primary CVD prevention in those with SMI, from an NHS perspective.
A microsimulation model was populated with 1000 individuals with SMI from The Health Improvement Network Database, aged 30–74 years without CVD. Four cardiovascular risk algorithms were assessed; (1) general population lipid, (2) general population BMI, (3) SMI-specific lipid and (4) SMI-specific BMI, compared against no algorithm. At baseline, each cardiovascular risk algorithm was applied and those high-risk (> 10%) were assumed to be prescribed statin therapy, others received usual care. Individuals entered the model in a ‘healthy’ free of CVD health state and with each year could retain their current health state, have cardiovascular events (non-fatal/fatal) or die from other causes according to transition probabilities.
The SMI-specific BMI and general population lipid algorithms had the highest NMB of the four algorithms resulting in 12 additional QALYs and a cost saving of approximately £37,000 (US$ 58,000) per 1000 patients with SMI over 10 years.
The general population lipid and SMI-specific BMI algorithms performed equally well. The ease and acceptability of use of a SMI-specific BMI algorithm (blood tests not required) makes it an attractive algorithm to implement in clinical settings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a national priority and may be facilitated by deployment of the Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) Strategy, a quality improvement framework providing a focused approach to infection prevention. This article describes the process and outcomes of TAP Strategy implementation for CDI prevention in a healthcare system.
Hospital A was identified based on CDI surveillance data indicating an excess burden of infections above the national goal; hospitals B and C participated as part of systemwide deployment. TAP facility assessments were administered to staff to identify infection control gaps and inform CDI prevention interventions. Retrospective analysis was performed using negative-binomial, interrupted time series (ITS) regression to assess overall effect of targeted CDI prevention efforts. Analysis included hospital-onset, laboratory-identified C. difficile event data for 18 months before and after implementation of the TAP facility assessments.
The systemwide monthly CDI rate significantly decreased at the intervention (β2, −44%; P = .017), and the postintervention CDI rate trend showed a sustained decrease (β1 + β3; −12% per month; P = .008). At an individual hospital level, the CDI rate trend significantly decreased in the postintervention period at hospital A only (β1 + β3, −26% per month; P = .003).
This project demonstrates TAP Strategy implementation in a healthcare system, yielding significant decrease in the laboratory-identified C. difficile rate trend in the postintervention period at the system level and in hospital A. This project highlights the potential benefit of directing prevention efforts to facilities with the highest burden of excess infections to more efficiently reduce CDI rates.
Feed represents a substantial proportion of production costs in the dairy industry and is a useful target for improving overall system efficiency and sustainability. The objective of this study was to develop methodology to estimate the economic value for a feed efficiency trait and the associated methane production relevant to Canada. The approach quantifies the level of economic savings achieved by selecting animals that convert consumed feed into product while minimizing the feed energy used for inefficient metabolism, maintenance and digestion. We define a selection criterion trait called Feed Performance (FP) as a 1 kg increase in more efficiently used feed in a first parity lactating cow. The impact of a change in this trait on the total lifetime value of more efficiently used feed via correlated selection responses in other life stages is then quantified. The resulting improved conversion of feed was also applied to determine the resulting reduction in output of emissions (and their relative value based on a national emissions value) under an assumption of constant methane yield, where methane yield is defined as kg methane/kg dry matter intake (DMI). Overall, increasing the FP estimated breeding value by one unit (i.e. 1 kg of more efficiently converted DMI during the cow’s first lactation) translates to a total lifetime saving of 3.23 kg in DMI and 0.055 kg in methane with the economic values of CAD $0.82 and CAD $0.07, respectively. Therefore, the estimated total economic value for FP is CAD $0.89/unit. The proposed model is robust and could also be applied to determine the economic value for feed efficiency traits within a selection index in other production systems and countries.
Background: Psychological therapy services are often required to demonstrate their effectiveness and are implementing systematic monitoring of patient progress. A system for measuring patient progress might usefully ‘inform supervision’ and help patients who are not progressing in therapy. Aims: To examine if continuous monitoring of patient progress through the supervision process was more effective in improving patient outcomes compared with giving feedback to therapists alone in routine NHS psychological therapy. Method: Using a stepped wedge randomized controlled design, continuous feedback on patient progress during therapy was given either to the therapist and supervisor to be discussed in clinical supervison (MeMOS condition) or only given to the therapist (S-Sup condition). If a patient failed to progress in the MeMOS condition, an alert was triggered and sent to both the therapist and supervisor. Outcome measures were completed at beginning of therapy, end of therapy and at 6-month follow-up and session-by-session ratings. Results: No differences in clinical outcomes of patients were found between MeMOS and S-Sup conditions. Patients in the MeMOS condition were rated as improving less, and more ill. They received fewer therapy sessions. Conclusions: Most patients failed to improve in therapy at some point. Patients’ recovery was not affected by feeding back outcomes into the supervision process. Therapists rated patients in the S-Sup condition as improving more and being less ill than patients in MeMOS. Those patients in MeMOS had more complex problems.
In 2011 the Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group reviewed the current state of HIV incidence assays and helped to determine a critical path to the introduction of an HIV incidence assay. At that time the Consortium for Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) was formed to spur progress and raise standards among assay developers, scientists and laboratories involved in HIV incidence measurement and to structure and conduct a direct independent comparative evaluation of the performance of 10 existing HIV incidence assays, to be considered singly and in combinations as recent infection test algorithms. In this paper we report on a new framework for HIV incidence assay evaluation that has emerged from this effort over the past 5 years, which includes a preliminary target product profile for an incidence assay, a consensus around key performance metrics along with analytical tools and deployment of a standardized approach for incidence assay evaluation. The specimen panels for this evaluation have been collected in large volumes, characterized using a novel approach for infection dating rules and assembled into panels designed to assess the impact of important sources of measurement error with incidence assays such as viral subtype, elite host control of viraemia and antiretroviral treatment. We present the specific rationale for several of these innovations, and discuss important resources for assay developers and researchers that have recently become available. Finally, we summarize the key remaining steps on the path to development and implementation of reliable assays for monitoring HIV incidence at a population level.