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Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis, an inflammatory process related to an increased rate of HIV transmission. In order to study T. vaginalis infection response in a microorganism-free environment, an infection model was established providing a host–parasite interaction system useful to study the interplay between immune cells and the parasite. Infected mice peritoneal cells were immunophenotyped at different times after infection using flow cytometry. Neutrophils and macrophages showed the most relevant increase from third to 12th day post-infection. A high number of B lymphocytes were present on 15th day post-infection, and an increase in memory T cells was observed on sixth day post-infection. The levels of NO increased at day 10 post-infection; no significant influence was observed on T. vaginalis clearance. Increased viability of T. vaginalis was observed when the NETs inhibitors, metformin and Cl− amidine, were administrated, highlighting the importance of this mechanism to control parasite infection (43 and 86%, respectively). This report presents a comprehensive cell count of the immune cells participating against trichomoniasis in an in vivo interaction system. These data highlight the relevance of innate mechanisms such as specific population changes of innate immune cells and their impact on the T. vaginalis viability.
Lee and Schwarz interpret meta-analytic research and replication studies as providing evidence for the robustness of cleansing effects. We argue that the currently available evidence is unconvincing because (a) publication bias and the opportunistic use of researcher degrees of freedom appear to have inflated meta-analytic effect size estimates, and (b) preregistered replications failed to find any evidence of cleansing effects.
Guidelines of treatment with antipsychotic medication have changed in the last 10 years, following the marketing of atypical antipsychotic medication (1994), being at the beginning the more frecuently use of typical antipsycotics and classic Depot in opposite to oral and depot atypical antipsychotics at the present.
To describe the real situation about the use of antipsychotics in patients with Schizophrenia following hospitalization into the different Acute Hospitalary Units and differences in their first and subsequent admission.
A survey was conducted by different hospitals in our geography from the discharge reports occurred in 2006 on schizophrenic patients.
2424 discharge reports were analized from 6 Acute Hospitalary Units. They were obtained 601 schizophrenic patients (24.79%) that required rehospitalization in 15.2% (N=76). The average stay was two to three weeks. Most patients were diagnosed of Paranoid Schizophrenia (74;75%). The more frecuently used was oral and/or IM atypical antipsychotic medication at 43%, opposite to 22.30 of the atypicals antipsycotics.
The predominant antipsychotic association used was a typical oral antipsychotic with atypical depot (26.47%), followed by the association of typical antipsychotic with oral atypical antipsychotic in 10.625. In readmissions the differences between both groups faded (atypical antipsychotics, 33.57% and combinations with depot, 30.26%)
There has been an evolution in the pattern of use of antipsychotic medication in the last 10 years. From predominant use of typical antipsychotics we have switched to atypical antipsychotics in monotherapy in first place (50% of patients), followed by the association of atypical antipsychotic plus depot.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder which involves chronic or recurrent psychosis and it is commonly associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning. Antipsychotic medications are a first-line treatment, however, most patients experience disabling impairment even after benefiting from antipsychotics, including positive and negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, poor social functioning and episodes of acute symptomatic relapse.
Systematic literature review in UpToDate and Pubmed.
To identify the most relevant intervention areas of systematic rehabilitation in schizophrenia.
45 years old schizophrenic male who admitted in a Medium Stay Psychiatry Unit with severe behavioural impairment and psychotic symptoms. At least 10 hospitalizations and pronounced disability in basic life skills despite optimal treatment. Poor insight and compliance, frequent relapses, co-morbid substance abuse and difficult family support. Clozapine was added to his treatment with improvement in psychotic symptoms. A multidisciplinary intervention was also done and he was discharged home with important improvement in social skills, better insight and familiar functioning
Despite following an adequate antipsychotic treatment, including Clozapine as the main medication in resistant schizophrenia, it is often partially effective with severe impairments in social and occupational functioning. Family-based interventions, cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training, added to this medication seem to be essential in the systematic treatment of schizoprenia. It includes a multidisciplinary team and a specific length of time but it is based on the patient's status. Despite evidence of their efectiveness, the availability of these interventions varies widely, as does the availability of clinicians to provide them.
Verbal working memory span is decreased in patients with schizophrenia, and this might contribute to impairment in higher cognitive functions as well as to the formation of certain clinical symptoms. Processing speed has been identified as a crucial factor in cognitive efficiency in this population. We tested the hypothesis that decreased processing speed underlies the verbal working memory deficit in patients and mediates the associations between working memory span and clinical symptoms.
Forty-nine schizophrenia inpatients recruited from units for chronic and acute patients, and forty-five healthy participants, were involved in the study. Verbal working memory span was assessed by means of the letter-number span. The Digit Copy test was used to assess motor speed, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to assess cognitive speed.
The working memory span was significantly impaired in patients (F(1,90) = 4.6, P < 0.05). However, the group difference was eliminated when either the motor or the cognitive speed measure was controlled (F(1,89) = 0.03, P = 0.86, and F(1,89) = 0.03, P = 0.88). In the patient group, working memory span was significantly correlated with negative symptoms (r = –0.52, P < 0.0001) and thought disorganisation (r = –0.34, P < 0.025) scores. Regression analyses showed that the association with negative symptoms was no longer significant when the motor speed measure was controlled (β = –0.12, P = 0.20), while the association with thought disorganisation was no longer significant when the cognitive speed measure was controlled (β = –0.10, P = 0.26).
Decrement in motor and cognitive speed plays a significant role in both the verbal working memory impairment observed in patients and the associations between verbal working memory impairment and clinical symptoms.
In the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, more and more authors suggesting the use of injectable antipsychotics long-term these patients, since it increases adherence to treatment, one of the risk factors for relapse that argues most often to explain the failure of the treatment of these patients.
In the present study, it is to observe the evolution of a group of such patients to assess efficacy and tolerability of treatment with Aripiprazole LAI.
Material and method
Data from 17 patients treated at a mental health center in Navarra (Spain), diagnosed with schizophrenic disorder, followed over a year after beginning treatment with Aripiprazol LAI are collected.
The data collected are:
– date of treatment change (month and year);
– antipsychotic previous;
– reason for change;
– aripiprazole LAI dose;
– number of income before and after the start of Aripiprazole LAI (mirror);
– effects adverse pre and post start of treatment with Aripiprazole LAI: metabolic, endocrine, extrapyramidal;
– treatment antipsychotic concomitant pre and post start Aripiprazole LAI.
The results show a decrease in the number of income after the start with Aripiprazole LAI, with very good retention of treatment, and a low number of side effects, which were mild.
Treatment with Aripiprazole LAI is a good therapeutic alternative to the use of antipsychotic drugs by mouth, with good adherence, tolerability and efficacy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The main sequence offers a method for the systematization of quasar spectral properties. Extreme FeII emitters (or extreme Population A, xA) are believed to be sources accreting matter at very high rates. They are easily identifiable along the quasar main sequence, in large spectroscopic surveys over a broad redshift range. The very high accretion rate makes it possible that massive black holes hosted in xA quasars radiate at a stable, extreme luminosity-to-mass ratio. After reviewing the basic interpretation of the main sequence, we report on the possibility of identifying virial broadening estimators from low-ionization line widths, and provide evidence of the conceptual validity of redshift-independent luminosities based on virial broadening for a known luminosity-to-mass ratio.
The bulk van der Waals crystal Mn3Si2Te6 (MST) has been irradiated with a proton beam of 2 MeV at a fluence of 1×1018 H+ cm-2. The temperature dependent magnetization measurements show a drastic decrease in the magnetization of 49.2% in the H//c direction observed in ferrimagnetic state. This decrease in magnetization is also reflected in the isothermal magnetization curves. No significant change in the ferrimagnetic transition temperature (75 K) was reflected after irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy shows no magnetically active defects present after irradiation. Here, experimental findings gathered from MST bulk crystals via magnetic measurements, magnetocaloric effect, and heat capacity are discussed.
van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials show promise in being the foundation for future spintronic technology. The magnetic behavior of Fe2.7GeTe2 (FGT), a vdW itinerant ferromagnet, was investigated before and after proton irradiation. Proton irradiation of the sample was carried out at a fluence of 1×1018 cm-2. The magnetization measurements revealed a small increase of saturation magnetization (Ms) of about 4% upon proton irradiation of the sample, in which, the magnetic field was applied parallel to the c-axis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for pristine and irradiated FGT revealed a general decrease in intensity after irradiation for Ge and Te and an increase in peak intensity of unavoidable surface iron oxide. Furthermore, no noticeable change in the Curie temperature (TC =152 K) is observed in temperature dependent magnetization variation. This work signifies the importance of employing protons in tuning the magnetic properties of vdW materials.
Highly accreting quasars are possible cosmological probes, as their Eddington ratio is expected to saturate toward values of order unity. We present preliminary estimates of redshift- independent source luminosities and the Hubble diagram for quasars in the redshift range 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 2.6.
We analyzed the light curves (LCs) of several radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars belonging to the same parameter space volume in the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) quasar sequence, using data from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS). We report preliminary results on detected variability pattern, and discuss possible cases of periodic variability.
Disk galaxies in cosmological numerical simulations grow by accreting gas from the cosmic web. This gas reaches the external disk, and then spirals in dragged along by tidal forces and/or disk instabilities. The importance of gas infall is as clear from numerical simulations as it is obscure to observations. Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies seem to be the best example we have of the gas accretion process at work. They have large off-center starbursts which show significant metallicity drop compared with the host galaxy. This observation is naturally explained as a gas accretion event caught in the act. We present preliminary results of the kinematical properties of the metal poor starbursts in XMPs, which suggest that the starbursts are kinematically decoupled entities within the host galaxy.
This work studies the change microstructural and mechanical properties of biomedical component hot forging of titanium; was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively the microstructural features obtained in this titanium biocompatible Ti6Al4V. The forging process was obtained at temperature of 950 °C, after by technical optical microscopy are obtained the microstructural characterization showing the phases present after forging. Likewise, the technical X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the presence of the phases. Also is evaluated the hardness and modulus of elasticity by technical nanoindentation. The characterization of this material has the objective to show that the results obtained with temperature study of 950 °C. Likewise by the forging process obtained a type phases and optimal properties required for these biomedical materials.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of pyrazole-containing macrocyclic polyamines 1–4 was assayed on Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis species. Compounds 1–4 were more active and less toxic than glucantime and both infection rates and ultrastructural alterations confirmed that 1 and 2 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications in the excretion products of parasites treated with 1–3 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasm alterations. Compound 2 was highlighted as a potent inhibitor of Fe-SOD in both species, whereas its effect on human CuZn-SOD was poor. Molecular modelling suggested that 2 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the enzyme`s antioxidant features.
The size of particular sub-regions within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been associated with fear extinction in humans. Exposure therapy is a form of extinction learning widely used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we investigated the relationship between morphometric measurements of different sub-regions of the vmPFC and exposure therapy outcome in OCD.
A total of 74 OCD patients and 86 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cortical thickness and volumetric measurements were obtained for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), the medial orbital frontal cortex and the subcallosal cortex. After MRI acquisition, patients were enrolled in an exposure therapy protocol, and we assessed the relationship between MRI-derived measurements and treatment outcome. Baseline between-group differences for such measurements were also assessed.
Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients showed a thinner left rACC (p = 0.008). Also, left rACC thickness was inversely associated with exposure therapy outcome (r – 0.32, p = 0.008), and this region was significantly thinner in OCD patients who responded to exposure therapy than in those who did not (p = 0.006). Analyses based on regional volumetry did not yield any significant results.
OCD patients showed cortical thickness reductions in the left rACC, and these alterations were related to exposure therapy outcome. The precise characterization of neuroimaging predictors of treatment response derived from the study of the brain areas involved in fear extinction may optimize exposure therapy planning in OCD and other anxiety disorders.
Restoration projects in wetlands are becoming increasingly frequent to recover or to create new aquatic ecosystems, after the significant impact and high degradation they have undergone. In the present study, we focused on the changes in the zooplankton community in a permanent peridunal pond where a restoration was carried out in order to increase its surface as a main objective. For this purpose, the community was compared before and after the restoration (15 years before, the year after and between 3 and 6 years later). Significant changes in environmental variables were observed after pond restoration: chlorophyll a concentration decreased and dissolved oxygen increased. Substantial modifications in the aquatic community were also observed, since species richness and diversity increased after restoration: a large number of new species appeared (84%, mainly cladocerans), from external or internal sources. In addition, zooplankton community structure and composition changed from a low specific richness community copepod-dominated in density (mostly nauplii) before restoration, to another one with higher richness and different composition co-dominated in density by rotifers and nauplii, but with greater abundance of cladoceran species. All this suggests an important change in the ecological functioning of the pond, mainly produced by improvement in habitat heterogeneity and water quality after restoration.
We address the effect of spatial scale and temporal variation on model generality when forming predictive models for fish assignment using a new data mining approach, Random Forests (RF), to variable biological markers (parasite community data). Models were implemented for a fish host-parasite system sampled along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Spain and were validated using independent datasets. We considered 2 basic classification problems in evaluating the importance of variations in parasite infracommunities for assignment of individual fish to their populations of origin: multiclass (2–5 population models, using 2 seasonal replicates from each of the populations) and 2-class task (using 4 seasonal replicates from 1 Atlantic and 1 Mediterranean population each). The main results are that (i) RF are well suited for multiclass population assignment using parasite communities in non-migratory fish; (ii) RF provide an efficient means for model cross-validation on the baseline data and this allows sample size limitations in parasite tag studies to be tackled effectively; (iii) the performance of RF is dependent on the complexity and spatial extent/configuration of the problem; and (iv) the development of predictive models is strongly influenced by seasonal change and this stresses the importance of both temporal replication and model validation in parasite tagging studies.
We examined the patterns of composition and structure of parasite communities in the Mediterranean sparid fish Boops boops along a gradient of fish sizes, using a large sample from a single population. We tested the hypothesis that species forming the core of the bogue parasite fauna (i.e. species which have a wide geographical range and are responsible for recognizable community structure) appear early in the fish ontogeny. The sequential community development observed supported the prediction that core species appear in the fish population earlier than rare and stochastic species. There was also a strong correlation between the order of ‘arrival’ of the species and their overall prevalence. Six key species were responsible for recognizable community structure across size/age cohorts; the addition to this baseline community of key parasite species resulted in a nested structure that is linked to differential species abundance rather than fish size. Information on the life-cycles, distribution and host range of the parasites is used to explain the observed patterns of parasite community structure. We conclude that the small mouth size of B. boops coupled with suction feeding may provide a setting for passive sampling as a mechanism leading to non-random parasite community structure.
To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in a population of patients with overweight and obesity of the A Coruña and Granada health areas, using the definitions of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATP III) and of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Patients and methods
During a period extending from 1996 to 2003, only those patients attending endocrinology outpatient clinics for whom all the anthropometric and biochemical parameters used to define the MS, both according to the ATP IIII and the IDF, were available were selected. The final study sample consisted of 285 patients, 198 females (69.5%) and 87 males (30.5%).
The prevalence of the MS was 29.8% when the ATP III definition was applied, and 41.1% according to the IDF criteria. Prevalence by sex was 32.2% in men and 28.8% in women according to the ATP III, and 42.5% and 40.4%, respectively, according to the IDF.
In a patient population with overweight or obesity, the prevalence of the MS is higher when the IDF criteria, instead of the ATP III criteria, are used. These findings may have significant implications when it comes to addressing early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in these patients, in order to perform therapeutic measures at the initial stages and thereby reduce metabolic and cardiovascular complications.