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The objective was to examine the prospective relationship between folate and vitamin B12 (B12) status and incident depressive symptoms in a representative cohort of community-dwelling older people. This was a longitudinal study utilising the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging (n =3,849 aged ≥50 years) and investigated the relationship between blood plasma folate and B12 levels at baseline (wave 1) and incident depressive symptoms at 2 and 4 years (waves 2 and 3). Participants with depression at wave 1 were excluded. A score ≥9 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-8 at wave 2 or 3 was indicative of incident depressive symptoms. Plasma B12 and folate concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. B12 status profiles (pmol/l) were defined as: <185, deficient-low; 185 - <258, low normal; >258 - 601, normal and >601 high. Folate status profiles (nmol/l) were defined as: ≤10.0, deficient-low; >10 - 23.0, low normal; >23.0 - 45.0, normal; >45.0, high. Logistic regression models reporting odds ratios were used to analyse the longitudinal association of B-vitamin categories with incident depression. Both B12 and folate plasma concentrations were lower in the group with incident depressive symptoms vs. non depressed (folate: 21.4 vs. 25.1 nmol/L; P=0.0003); (B12: 315.7 vs. 335.9 pmol/L; P=0.0148). Regression models demonstrated that participants with deficient-low B12 status at baseline had a significantly higher likelihood of incident depression four years later (odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.27, P=0.043). This finding remained robust after controlling for relevant covariates including physical activity, chronic disease burden, vitamin D status. cardiovascular disease and antidepressant use. No associations of folate status with incident depression were observed. Older adults with deficient-low B12 status had a 51% increased likelihood of developing depressive symptoms over 4 years. Given the high rates of B12 deficiency, these findings are important and highlight the need to further explore the low cost benefits of optimising vitamin B12 status for depression in older adults.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging food- and waterborne pathogen that causes cyclosporiasis, a gastrointestinal disease in humans. The parasite is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions; however, its prevalence is largely dependent on environmental factors, such as climate and rainfall patterns. The objective of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of C. cayetanensis in water and to determine if geography, water source and other variables influence this prevalence. A literature search was performed using search terms relating to water and C. cayetanensis in MEDLINE®, CAB Direct, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Agricola databases and Environmental Science Index. Observational studies published in English after 1979 were eligible. Screening, data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. A multi-level random-effects meta-analysis was completed to determine the prevalence of C. cayetanensis in water and subgroup meta-analyses were performed to explore between-study heterogeneity. The search identified 828 unique articles, and after the screening, 33 articles were included in the review. The pooled prevalence of C. cayetanensis in water was 6.90% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.25%–13.05%, I2 = 84.38%]. Subgroup meta-analyses revealed significant differences in the prevalence between continents. Additionally, laboratory methods between studies were highly variable and these findings highlight the need for further environmental research on C. cayetanensis in water using detection methods that include PCR and sequencing to accurately identify the organism. The results of this study can be used to help assess the risk of waterborne cyclosporiasis.
High levels of early emotionality (of either negative or positive valence) are hypothesized to be important precursors to early psychopathology, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a prime early target. The positive and negative affect domains are prime examples of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) concepts that may enrich a multilevel mechanistic map of psychopathology risk. Utilizing both variable-centered and person-centered approaches, the current study examined whether levels and trajectories of infant negative and positive emotionality, considered either in isolation or together, predicted children's ADHD symptoms at 4 to 8 years of age. In variable-centered analyses, higher levels of infant negative affect (at as early as 3 months of age) were associated with childhood ADHD symptoms. Findings for positive affect failed to reach statistical threshold. Results from person-centered trajectory analyses suggest that additional information is gained by simultaneously considering the trajectories of positive and negative emotionality. Specifically, only when exhibiting moderate, stable or low levels of positive affect did negative affect and its trajectory relate to child ADHD symptoms. These findings add to a growing literature that suggests that infant negative emotionality is a promising early life marker of future ADHD risk and suggest secondarily that moderation by positive affectivity warrants more consideration.
Gender has been proposed as a potentially important predictor of bereavement outcomes. The majority of research in the field has explored this issue by examining gender differences in global grief severity. Findings have been mixed. In this study, we explore potential gender differences in grief using network analysis. This approach examines how individual symptoms relate to and reinforce each other, and so offers potential to shed light on novel aspects of grief expression across genders.
Graphical lasso networks were constructed using self-report data from 839 spousally bereaved older participants (584 female, 255 male) collected at 2- and 11- months post-bereavement. Edge strength, node strength and global network strength were compared to identify similarities and differences between gender networks across time.
At both time points, the strongest connection for both genders was from yearning to pangs of grief. Yearning, pangs of grief, acceptance, bitterness and shock were prominent nodes at time 1. Numbness and meaninglessness emerged as prominent nodes at time 2. Males and females differed in the relative importance of shock at time 1, and the female network had greater overall strength than the male network at time 2.
This study identified many similarities and few differences in the relationships between prolonged grief symptoms for males and females. Findings suggest that future studies should examine alternate sources of variation in grief outcomes. Limitations are discussed.
Weight cycling is prevalent in sports/professions with body composition standards, and has been associated with weight management behaviours that may contribute to suboptimal diet quality and weight gain. US Army Soldiers may be at increased risk of weight cycling relative to civilians due to mandated body composition standards. However, the relationship between weight cycling, weight management behaviours, BMI and diet quality among Soldiers is unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 575 Soldiers (89 % enlisted, 90 % male, 23 ± 4 years) at Army installations at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, AK, Joint-Base Lewis McChord, WA, and Fort Campbell, KY completed questionnaires on food frequency, health-related behaviours and history of weight cycling (≥ 3 weight fluctuations ≥ 5 % body weight). Weight cycling was reported by 33 % of Soldiers. Those who reported weight cycling reported higher BMI (27 ± 4 v. 25 ± 3 kg/m2, P < 0·001) and higher prevalence of engaging in weight management behaviours prior to body weight screening but did not report lower dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI) scores 59 ± 10 v 59 ± 11, P = 0·46) relative to those who did not report weight cycling. Results of mediation analyses suggested that weight cycling may affect BMI both directly (c’ = 1·19, 95 % CI: 0·62, 1·75) and indirectly (ab = 0·45, 95 % CI: 0·19, 0·75), and HEI scores indirectly (ab = 0·69, 95 % CI: 0·20, 1·35) through the adoption of weight management behaviours. Weight cycling is common in Soldiers and is associated with higher BMI and higher prevalence of engaging in weight management behaviours that mediate associations between weight cycling, BMI and diet quality.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite causing cyclosporiasis (an illness in humans). Produce (fruits, vegetables, herbs), water and soil contaminated with C. cayetanensis have been implicated in human infection. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of primary research in English on the detection, epidemiology and control of C. cayetanensis with an emphasis on produce, water and soil. MEDLINE® (Web of ScienceTM), Agricola (ProQuest), CABI Global Health, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched from 1979 to February 2020. Of the 349 relevant primary research studies identified, there were 75 detection-method studies, 40 molecular characterisation studies, 38 studies of Cyclospora in the environment (33 prevalence studies, 10 studies of factors associated with environmental contamination), 246 human infection studies (212 prevalence/incidence studies, 32 outbreak studies, 60 studies of environmental factors associated with non-outbreak human infection) and eight control studies. There appears to be sufficient literature for a systematic review of prevalence and factors associated with human infection with C. cayetanensis. There is a dearth of publicly available detection-method studies in soil (n = 0) and water (n = 2), prevalence studies on soil (n = 1) and studies of the control of Cyclospora (particularly on produce prior to retail (n = 0)).
South Asians, who are at a disproportionately greater risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD), represent a rapidly growing population in the USA. The relationship between dairy products, a major component of South Asian diets, and body composition – an established risk factor for ASCVD, is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between dairy intake and multiple measures of body composition (BMI, waist and hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, abdominal lean mass, subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular fat areas) among South Asian adults in the USA. A baseline analysis was conducted using existing data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America cohort. In women, the highest (>1·9 servings/d) v. lowest (<1 serving/d) tertile of dairy intake was associated with 53 % lower odds of a waist circumference >80 cm (95 % CI 0·25, 0·89, Pfor trend<0·05). No associations were observed between dairy intake and measures of body composition. However, >3 servings of low-fat yogurt/week was associated with a 9·9 cm2 lower visceral fat area (95 % CI –19·07, –0·72, P<0·05) and 2·3 cm2 lower intermuscular fat area (95 % CI –3·76, –0·79, P<0·05) as compared with those with three servings/week. Milk and cheese were not associated with body composition measures. These analyses suggest that higher consumption of low-fat yogurt is associated with lower visceral and intermuscular fat in the whole sample, and women with higher dairy intake have lower waist circumference. Our study supports dietary incorporation of dairy products, and recognises the utility of multidimensional measures of central adiposity.
Diet quality indices are a practical, cost-effective method to evaluate dietary patterns, yet few have investigated diet quality in athletes. This study describes the relative validity and reliability of the recently developed Athlete Diet Index (ADI). Participants completed the electronic ADI on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, followed by a 4-d estimated food record (4-dFR). Relative validity was evaluated by directly comparing mean scores of the two administrations (mAdm) against scores derived from 4-dFR using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman (B–A) plots. Construct validity was investigated by comparing mAdm scores and 4-dFR-derived nutrient intakes using Spearman’s coefficient and independent t test. Test–retest reliability was assessed using paired t test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and B–A plots. Sixty-eight elite athletes (18·8 (sd 4·2) years) from an Australian sporting institute completed the ADI on both occasions. Mean score was 84·1 (sd 15·2; range 42·5–114·0). The ADI had good reliability (ICC = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·69, 0·87; P < 0·001), and B–A plots (mean 1·9; level of agreement −17·8, 21·7) showed no indication of systematic bias (y = 4·57–0·03 × x) (95 % CI −0·2, 0·1; P = 0·70). Relative validity was evaluated in fifty athletes who completed all study phases. Comparison of mAdm scores with 4-dFR-derived scores was moderate (rs 0·69; P < 0·001) with no systematic bias between methods of measurement (y = 6·90–0·04 × x) (95 % CI −0·3, 0·2; P = 0·73). Higher scores were associated with higher absolute nutrient intake consistent with a healthy dietary pattern. The ADI is a reliable tool with moderate validity, demonstrating its potential for application to investigate the diet quality of athletes.
This paper uses evidence from a previously unresearched ecclesiastical textile associated with Archbishop John Morton (c 1420−1500) to generate new insights into the material culture of the Roman Catholic faith before, during and after the penal period in England (c 1558−1829). This composite textile was initially thought to be made up of fragments of a late 1400s cope bearing Morton’s rebus, reconfigured as an altar frontal, which had survived in the house of an important Roman Catholic family. The embroidered motifs include a unique Lily Crucifix. The textile’s complex biography is ‘unpicked’ using physical and textual evidence to understand its changing forms, roles and significance. Analysis of the material and construction, combined with evidence gained through X-radiography, showed the frontal to be composed of parts of a cope and at least one other vestment, with a now missing image of the Annunciation. Mapping the stages of fragmentation, removal and re-modelling demonstrates the transformation of significant mainstream vestments into other forms. The paper illuminates aspects of Morton’s faith and provides new insights into the practices of recusant Roman Catholics.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Flavorings differ between brands and tobacco products, potentially altering the sensory perceptions. This study aimed to examine discrepancies in flavor preference across various non-cigarette tobacco products among a national representative sample of US adult regular tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalence of flavor preference for various tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), traditional cigars, cigarillos/filtered cigars, hookah and snus/smokeless, was presented for 9,037 adult current and new former users of multiple flavored tobacco products. Within-subject flavor discrepancies were assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models considering the complex sampling design of the PATH study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most regular users of a flavored tobacco products reported using one flavor category per product. Fruit flavors, followed by tobacco, were the most common flavor categories among ENDS (32% and 25%, respectively) and hookah users (44% and 36%, respectively). Tobacco flavor was the most common among regular users of traditional cigars (80%), cigarillos/filtered cigars (55%), and smokeless tobacco (79%). Polytobacco users of ENDS and traditional cigars had the largest discrepancy, where about 68-76%% used different flavor categories when switching products. Conversely, polytobacco users of traditional cigars and cigarillos/filtered cigars had the lowest discrepancy (23-25%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many consumers of multiple tobacco products had different flavor preferences when switching between products. In the event of a partial or full flavor ban for ENDS, these findings raise questions about consumer loyalty to a particular tobacco product or a particular flavor category. Conflict of Interest Description: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Wheezing has been shown to be associated with use of cigarettes, and more recently, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study assessed the association of poly use of tobacco products with wheezing among a national representative sample of US adult current tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalences of self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms for non-users compared to users of cigarettes, ENDS, cigars, and any combination of these products (poly use of tobacco products) were presented for 28,082 adults. The cross-sectional association of tobacco use with self-reported wheezing and other related respiratory symptoms was assessed using weighted multivariable and ordinal logistic regression with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most adults who reported on wheezing symptoms did not currently use cigarettes, ENDS or cigars (79%), 15% used cigarettes, 3% used a combination of cigarettes, ENDS and cigars, 1% used ENDS, and 1% used cigars. Significantly higher odds of ever had wheezing or whistling in chest at any time in the past was observed among current cigarette (adjusted OR: 2.62, 95%CI: 2.35, 2.91), ENDS (1.49, 95%CI: 1.14, 1.95), and poly users (2.67, 95%CI: 2.26, 3.16) compared to non-users. No differences were seen for cigar use. Polytobacco use was associated with a higher odds of ever wheezing when compared to ENDS (1.61, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.17) and cigar use (2.87, 95%CI: 1.93, 4.26), but not cigarettes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wheezing is associated with the use of cigarettes, ENDS, or any combination of cigarette, ENDS and cigars likely due to the inhalation of noxious chemicals and gases found in the smoke of cigarettes and ENDS that are likely to increase the odds of experiencing wheezing. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
Nerve transfer surgery for patients with nerve and spinal cord injuries can result in dramatic functional improvements. As a result, interdisciplinary complex nerve injury programs (CNIPs) have been established in many Canadian centers, providing electrodiagnostic and surgical consultations in a single encounter. We sought to determine which allied health care services are included in Canadian CNIPs, at the 3rd Annual Canadian Peripheral Nerve Symposium. Twenty CNIPs responded to a brief survey and reported access as follows: occupational therapy = 60%, physiotherapy = 40%, social work = 20%, and mental health = 10%. Access to allied health services is variable in CNIPs across Canada, possibly resulting in heterogeneity in patient care.
Introduction: Outpatient oncology clinics have become the mainstay of cancer treatment, but their limited services and hours of operation often lead to emergency department (ED) referrals. With Canada's aging population and cancer survival rates improving, cancer-related ED visits are becoming a significant aspect of emergency medicine. A cancer-related visit to the ED is associated with unique challenges for patients, their caregivers and clinicians. This study focuses on understanding the ED experience of patients and their caregivers sent from an outpatient oncology clinic to a separate affiliated large academic hospital. Methods: A descriptive, phenomenological study of interviews was conducted using the method of Giorgi. The sample included 12 participants (n = 9 patients, 3 caregivers) referred to the ED at a large academic hospital (i.e., Toronto General Hospital, TGH) following a same-day outpatient oncology appointment at an affiliated cancer centre (i.e., Princess Margaret Hospital, PMH). Interviews continued until thematic saturation. All transcripts were analyzed by 2 reviewers with bracketing to ensure accuracy. Results: Four themes were identified from analysis: (1) communication; (2) expectations; (3) care and symptom management and (4) potential improvements. Overall patients and caregivers felt communication between PMH and TGH, and from providers could have been better. Many felt there was a break-down in communication as they did not expect to go through the usual ED triage process, which caused additional anxiety and frustration with the wait times. The majority felt their symptoms were managed in a timely manner and reported the staff to be friendly, caring and professional; however, often felt forgotten and anxious due to a lack of “checking-in”. Their experience could have been improved by receiving more information on the process, a more welcoming environment and separate waiting area or private room for those who are immunocompromised. Conclusion: Although referral from an outpatient oncology clinic to the ED of an affiliated hospital is a common process within Canada, this is the first study to explore the patient and caregiver experience. Understanding the patient and caregiver experience is valuable for identifying quality improvement initiatives. Our analysis revealed the patient and caregiver experience could be improved with better communication and expectation setting regarding the ED process before and throughout the visit.
Introduction: Nearly 50% of Canadians will develop cancer in their lifetime (1), and the vast majority of those with cancer will visit the emergency department (ED) in their last 6 months of life (2). Considering the aging population, improvement in cancer survival and current practice of managing cancer in outpatient settings, cancer-related emergencies are becoming a significant aspect of emergency medicine. The presenting symptoms and rates of hospitalization for cancer-related ED visits have largely been established. The current study characterizes the patterns of ED utilization and time-course of events for cancer-related ED visits following same-day outpatient oncology appointments resulting in admission to hospital compared to those not admitted. Methods: A retrospective chart-review was used to identify 231 adult patients who visited the ED at a large academic hospital (i.e., Toronto General Hospital) following a same-day outpatient oncology appointment at an affiliated cancer centre (i.e., Princess Margaret Hospital) from March to May 2019, using administrative data. Results: All visits occurred on weekdays (avg = 4 visits/d) and 57% of visits resulted in hospitalization. Between those admitted and not admitted to hospital, there was no difference in triage time [17:23 + 0:14 vs. 17:01 + 0:20 h, p = 0.47; mean(SD)]. Visits resulting in hospitalization were more urgent (median CTAS score = 2 vs. 3, p < 0.001) and required more consultation services (64 vs. 17 % of visits, p < 0.001), but did not differ for imaging (36 vs. 33 % of visits, p = 0.63). The length of stay in the ED was longer for those admitted [16.6(0.9) vs. 5.3(0.3) h, p < 0.01), they waited longer for their initial assessment [2.6(1.9) vs. 1.8(1.3) h, p < 0.01) and spent 10.1(9.9) h waiting for a bed on the ward. There was no difference in time from initial assessment to disposition, imaging or consult reports (p > 0.05) between groups. The patients transferred from oncology clinics were triaged at 17:13(0:11) h compared to 13:56(0:03) h for all ED visits during the same time frame. Conclusion: Most patients sent from oncology clinics to the ED are admitted, and when admitted they spend an additional 10 h waiting for a bed on the ward. These patients tend to arrive later in the day compared to other ED patients. Understanding utilization patterns and time-course of events allows for objective identification of quality improvement initiatives. 1 Canadian Cancer Society, 2015 2 Barbera et al. CMAJ, 2010
The uncertainty surrounding high intakes of folic acid and associations with cognitive decline in older adults with low vitamin B12 status has been an obstacle to mandatory folic acid fortification for many years. We estimated the prevalence of combinations of low/normal/high vitamin B12 and folate status and compared associations with global cognitive function using two approaches, of individuals in a population-based study of those aged ≥50 years in the Republic of Ireland. Cross-sectional data from 3781 men and women from Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing were analysed. Global cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Prevalence estimates for combinations of vitamin B12 (plasma vitamin B12 < or ≥258 pmol/l) and folate (plasma folate ≤ or >45·3 nmol/l) concentrations were generated. Negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the associations of vitamin B12 and folate status with global cognitive function. Of the participants, 1·5 % (n 51) had low vitamin B12 (<258 pmol/l) and high folate (>45·3 nmol/l) status. Global cognitive performance was not significantly reduced in these individuals when compared with those with normal status for both B-vitamins (n 2433). Those with normal vitamin B12/high folate status (7·6 %) had better cognitive performance (MMSE: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·82, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·99; P = 0·043, MoCA: IRR 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99; P = 0·025). We demonstrated that high folate status was not associated with lower cognitive scores in older adults with low vitamin B12 status. These findings provide important safety information that could guide fortification policy recommendations in Europe.
Olanzapine is prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and BPAD. It is not licensed for personality disorders, behavioural issues or in patients with opiate addiction.This audit sought to identify the number of opiate dependent patients in a tertiary referral centre on olanzapine and the reason why.
All patients attending one sector had their notes examined over a three year period to see whether they are or were on olanzapine. All patients were opiate dependent and prescribed methadone.Parameters looked at included Axis 1 or 2 diagnosis, previous psychiatric in-patient admissions, forensic history and whether fasting lipids and glucose were checked.
169 charts were reviewed.Of these, 37 patients either were on or had been on olanzapine (21.9% overall).20 of these patients (11.8%) had an Axis 1 disorder, 17(10%) had behavioural diffciulties.Of the 20 patients with an Axis 1 disorder, 18 of them had an in-patient hospital admission.Only 7 of 17 patients on olanzapine with behavioural issues had an in-patient admission.All patients with behavioural difficulties had a forensic history and 16/17 had custodial sentences.15 of the 20 patients with Axis 1 diagnoses served custodial sentences.
A significant percentage of patients were prescribed olanzapine off license with no clinical indication.This is a worrying finding due to the abuse potential of olanzapine and longer term metabolic effects.Caution should be taken with prescribing olanzapine to opiate addicts who abuse it for its sedative effect.The value of this study is that it is one of the few to date to describe this problem.