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We assessed the feasibility of implementing psychological counseling services (PCS) for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) integrated within special education settings in urban Bangladesh.
In two special education schools for ASD in Dhaka City, trained female psychologists screened mothers using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). PCS was administered to all the mothers irrespective of a diagnosis of depression. Mothers with a PHQ-9 score >4 who met criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) based on the DSM-IV Structured Interview Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) were also administered skill-building training through monthly home visits to support ASD care. The level of depression was assessed by the Depression Measurement Scale (DMS), and quality of life (QoL) was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of EQ5D5L scale before and after PCS.
Among 188 mothers enrolled in the study, 81 (43%) received PCS, and 27.1% (22) had MDE. In the first month, 73 sessions were scheduled and 60 completed (85%). In the last month, 53 sessions were scheduled and 52 completed (98%). The mean DMS score decreased from 79.5 ± 23 to 60 ± 20 (p = 0.004), and DMS scores were significantly higher among mothers with MDE (97.8 ± 12.1 v. 69.9 ± 22.1; p < 0.001) compared to those without MDE (72.7 ± 22.6 v. 56.1 ± 18.1; p = 0.003). The mean VAS score improved from 70.3 ± 14.1 to 80.2 ± 13.3 (p = 0.001) between the first and the last session. Changes in DMS were negatively correlated with changes in VAS scores (β: −0.213, 95% CI 0.370 to −0.056).
Within special education schools for ASD in urban Bangladesh, it was feasible to administer an integrated program of PCS for mothers of children with ASD by trained psychologists who were able to screen and intervene to reduce their level of depression and improve their quality of life.
Mixed flora in urine cultures usually occur due to preanalytic contamination. In our outpatient urology clinic, we detected a high prevalence of mixed flora (46.2%), which was associated with female sex and older age. Patient education did not influence the rate of mixed flora. Future efforts should target high-risk patients.
We argue that concentration of power in religious hospitals threatens disestablishment values. When hospitals deny care for religious reasons, they dominate patients’ bodies and convictions. Health law should — and to some extent already does — constrain such religious domination.
Background: West syndrome (WS) is characterized by the onset of epileptic spasms usually within the first year of life. Global developmental delay with/without regression is common. Advances in high-throughput sequencing have supported the genetic heterogeneity of this condition. To better understand the genetic causes of this disorder, we investigated the results of targeted exome sequencing in 29 patients with WS. Methods: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on an Ion ProtonTM and variant reporting was restricted to sequences of 620 known epilepsy genes. Diagnostic yield and treatment impact are described for 29 patients with WS. Results: A definitely/likely diagnosis was made in 10 patients (34%), which included 10 different genes (ALG13, PAFAH1B1, SLC35A2, DYNC1H1, ADSL, DEPDC5, ARX, CDKL5, SCN8A, STXBP1) known to be associated with epilepsy or WS. Most variants were de novo dominant (X-linked/autosomal) except for ARX (X-linked recessive) and ADSL (autosomal recessive). 4 out of 10 (40%) had a genetic diagnosis with potential treatment implications. Conclusions: These results emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of WS. The high diagnostic yield, along with the significant genetic variability, and the potential for treatment impact, supports the early use of this testing in patients with unexplained WS.
Background: We evaluated (1) the predictive accuracy and (2) multi-observer reliability of non-contrast CT markers of hematoma expansion (HE). Methods: In 124 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, two investigators documented the presence of six density (Barras density, hypodensity, black hole, swirl, blend, fluid level) and three shape (Barras shape, island, satellite) expansion markers, with discrepancies resolved by a third rater. We defined HE as any one of (1) >6 mL absolute or >33% relative growth of the intraparenchymal hematoma or (2) an absolute growth of >1 mL or new development of intraventricular hematoma. A subsample of 60 patients was used for the inter-observer reliability study in 13 raters. Seven raters participated in the intra-rater study. Results: The sensitivity of markers for HE varied between 4% (fluid level) and 78% (satellite), while specificity ranged from 37% (swirl) to 97% (black hole). Almost perfect inter-rater agreement was observed for the swirl (0.89) and fluid level (0.83) markers, while hypodensity (0.65) showed substantial agreement. Only the blend and fluid level markers achieved substantial intra-rater agreement (> 0.6) in all raters. Conclusions: Non-contrast CT markers of HE showed lower reliability and predictive accuracy than previously reported. Future studies should address means to improve NCCT-based HE prediction.
The prevalence rates of trypanosomes, including those that require cyclical transmission by tsetse flies, are widely distributed in Africa. Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense are actively maintained in regions where there are no tsetse flies although at low frequencies. Whether this could be due to an independent evolutionary origin or multiple introduction of trypanosomes due to continuous movement of livestock between tsetse-free and -infested areas is not known. Thus, the aim of the study was to carry out microsatellite genotyping to explore intra-specific genetic diversity between T. (Trypanozoon), T. congolense and Trypanosoma vivax from the two regions: tsetse infested and tsetse free. Microsatellite genotyping showed geographical origin-based structuring among T. (Trypanozoon) isolates. There was a clear separation between isolates from the two regions signalling the potential of microsatellite markers as diagnostic markers for T. brucei and Trypanosoma evansi isolates. Trypanosoma vivax isolates also clustered largely based on the sampling location with a significant differentiation between the two locations. However, our results revealed that T. congolense isolates from Northern Kenya are not genetically separated from those from Coastal Kenya. Therefore, these isolates are likely introduced in the region through animal movement. Our results demonstrate the occurrence of both genetic connectivity as well as independent evolutionary origin, depending on the trypanosome species between the two ecologies.
Neuroimaging offers great potential to clinicians and researchers for a host of mental and physical conditions. The use of imaging has been trumpeted for forensic psychiatric and psychological evaluations to allow greater insight into the relationship between the brain and behavior. The results of imaging certainly can be used to inform clinical diagnoses; however, there continue to be limitations in using neuroimaging for insanity cases due to limited scientific backing for how neuroimaging can inform retrospective evaluations of mental state. In making this case, this paper reviews the history of the insanity defense and explains how the use of neuroimaging is not an effective way of improving the reliability of insanity defense evaluations.
The high prevalence of smoking in individuals who are at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis is well known and moderate cognitive deficits have also been found in UHR. However, the association between smoking and cognition in UHR is unknown and longitudinal studies are lacking.
A cohort study with 330 UHR individuals and 66 controls was conducted, as part of the European network of national schizophrenia networks studying gene–environment interactions (EU-GEI). At baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months, smoking behavior was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and cognitive functioning with a comprehensive test battery. Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to examine the multicross-sectional and prospective associations between (change in) smoking behavior and cognitive functioning, accounting for confounding variables.
At baseline, 53% of UHR and 27% of controls smoked tobacco. Smoking UHR and controls did not significantly differ from nonsmoking counterparts on the tested cognitive domains (speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, or reasoning/problem solving) across different assessment times. Neither smoking cessation nor initiation was associated with a significant change in cognitive functioning in UHR.
No associations were found between smoking and cognitive impairment in UHR nor in controls. However, the fact that one in every two UHR individuals report daily use of tobacco is alarming. Our data suggest that UHR have fewer cognitive impairments and higher smoking cessation rates compared to patients with first-episode psychosis found in literature. Implications to promote smoking cessation in the UHR stage need further investigation.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Every year in Australia over a thousand children who are born with congenital heart disease require surgical intervention. Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) can be an unavoidable and potentially devastating complication of surgery for congenital heart disease. Structured, multidisciplinary care pathways help to guide clinical care and reduce mortality and morbidity. An implementation study was conducted to embed a novel, multidisciplinary management pathway into practice using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). The goal of the pathway was to prepare children with postoperative vocal cord dysfunction to safely commence and transition to oral feeding. Education sessions to support pathway rollout were completed with clinical stakeholders. Other implementation strategies used included adaptation of the pre-procedural pathway to obtain consent, improving the process of identifying patients on the VCD pathway, and nominating a small team who were responsible for the ongoing monitoring of patients following recruitment. Implementation success was evaluated according to compliance with pathway defined management. Our study found that while there were several barriers to pathway adoption, implementation of the pathway was feasible despite pathway adaptations that were required in response to COVID-19.
Social learning, a type of information transmission in which individuals gain information by observing or interacting with another animal or the products of another animal’s actions, is an extensively studied subject in a wide array of species. Of particular interest is the ability of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to learn socially, especially given their extensive sociality and fission–fusion dynamics, which provides many opportunities for individuals to learn from each other in different contexts. Using observational and experimental approaches, researchers have explored how faithfully chimpanzees copy others, the type of information conveyed between individuals, and the extent to which social learning is influenced by external factors. In this chapter we review what is currently known about the mechanisms by which chimpanzees socially learn and the strategies they may employ when doing so. We also discuss the much-debated topic of chimpanzee "culture," and how this compares to our own culture. Last, we provide a comparative perspective for social learning in chimpanzees with other species, and discuss how understanding chimpanzee social learning can be useful in their captive care and aiding their conservation in the wild.
Palliative care (PC) is patient and family-centered supportive care intended to improve symptom management, reduce caregiver burden, coordinate care, and improve quality of life for patients diagnosed with serious illness. Optimally, PC is begun close to initial diagnosis and delivered in synchrony with disease-specific treatment until symptom relief or patient death. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer survivors’ knowledge and perceptions of PC using a nationally representative sample of US adults from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).
A total of 593 HINTS respondents reported a personal history of cancer and were included in the sample (55.56% female; mean age of 65.88 years, SD = 18.21; mean time from diagnosis 13.83 years, SD = 18.21). Weighted logistic regression models were conducted to identify correlates of PC knowledge.
Of the 593 cancer survivors in the sample, 66% (N = 378) reported that they had never heard of PC, 18% (N = 112) reported knowing a little bit about PC, and 17% (N = 95) reported knowing what PC is and could explain it to someone else. In multivariable analysis, survivors of color (Hispanic/Latino, Black, Asian, American Indian, and Pacific Islander), males, and those less educated were significantly less likely to report knowledge of PC. Among survivors who did report knowledge of PC, a lack of distinction between differing modes of supportive care exists.
Significance of results
These findings suggest a need to increase PC knowledge among cancer survivors with the ultimate goal of addressing disparities in PC acceptance and utilization.
The occurrence of nonlocal objects, raw materials, and ideas in the southwestern United States (U.S. SW) has long been recognized as evidence of interaction between prehispanic peoples of this region and those of greater Mesoamerica. Although many archaeologists have analyzed the directionality and potential means by which these objects and concepts moved across the landscape, few have assessed the degree to which Mesoamerican practices and traditional assemblages remained intact as the artifacts and ideas moved farther from their places of origin. The current study analyzes the distribution and deposition of blue-green stone mosaics, a craft technology that was well established in Mesoamerica by the Late Preclassic period (300 BC–AD 250) and spread to the U.S. SW by the start of the Hohokam Pioneer period (AD 475). We assess the spatial distribution, contextual deposition, and morphology of mosaics at sites within Hohokam Canal System 2, located in the Phoenix Basin of Arizona. We use these data to infer mosaics’ social value and function within Hohokam social structure. Analyses suggest that, although the technology of mosaic making may have originated in Mesoamerica, the contexts and ways in which mosaics were used in the Hohokam regional system were decidedly Hohokam.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our research focuses on determining rural-urban disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management to improve COPD health outcomes in rural areas. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Several methods exist to distinguish rural from urban areas, but it is not clear which method relates most directly to rural-urban health care disparities. To address this, we compared different measures of rurality to measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) processes of care among a national sample of veterans. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Retrospective analysis of patients with COPD (2016-2019 by ICD-10 codes) using national Veterans Affairs (VA) data. We assessed rurality by: 1) patient’s residential address, 2) assigned primary care clinic address, and 3) drive time from the patient’s residence to closest primary care clinic. Rurality designations of the residential address and primary care clinic address into urban, rural, and highly rural areas are based on the Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes. The dependent variables were binary outcomes of: 1) documentation of a pulmonary clinic encounter and 2) evidence of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of COPD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 6,765,951 veterans, 1,157,002 (17%) had COPD (Table 1). Although approximately 40% of patients with COPD reside in addresses that are rural and highly rural, a large majority are assigned to primary care clinics in urban areas (82.8%) and reside within 30 minutes to the closest primary care clinic (76.7%) (Table 2). Compared to defining rurality based on patient’s residential address or drive time to closest primary care, defining rurality based on the assigned primary care clinic address was associated with a larger disparity in rates of pulmonary encounter. In contrast, the drive time from the patient’s residence to the closest primary care was the strongest predictor of receipt of spirometry (Figure 1 and Table 3). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Estimates of the severity of rural-urban disparities varied based on the definition of rurality used. For two process measures, definitions of rurality based on where the patient received primary care generated more evidence of disparities than definitions based solely on the patient’s residential address.
This paper investigates the distributions of triangle counts per vertex and edge, as a means for network description, analysis, model building, and other tasks. The main interest is in estimating these distributions through sampling, especially for large networks. A novel sampling method tailored for the estimation analysis is proposed, with three sampling designs motivated by several network access scenarios. An estimation method based on inversion and an asymptotic method are developed to recover the entire distribution. A single method to estimate the distribution using multiple samples is also considered. Algorithms are presented to sample the network under the various access scenarios. Finally, the estimation methods on synthetic and real-world networks are evaluated in a data study.
The blockchain industry has recently broken through into the general public’s consciousness. Gone were the days of blockchain projects being solely the interest of computer programmers, libertarians, and anti-government activists. Now, discussion of the industry graced the pages of the New York Times1 and the Wall Street Journal,2 and the nascent industry was regularly covered by television news programs such as CNBC’s Fast Money.3 The majority of this attention was directed to price increases in cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, but a new vehicle for raising capital – known as an initial coin offering, or ICO – also fueled public enthusiasm. All of this excitement and curiosity has made it harder and harder for lawyers to ignore this industry. As such, it is beneficial for lawyers to get a high-level understanding of what the blockchain industry is, and how it makes technologies like cryptocurrencies possible.
Benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription rates have increased over the past decade in the United States. Available literature indicates that sociodemographic factors may influence diagnostic patterns and/or prescription behaviour. Herein, the aim of this study is to determine whether the gender of the prescriber and/or patient influences BZD prescription.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Florida Medicaid Managed Medical Assistance Program from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. Eligible recipients ages 18 to 64, inclusive, enrolled in the Florida Medicaid plan for at least 1 day, and were dually eligible. Recipients either had a serious mental illness (SMI), or non-SMI and anxiety.
Total 125 463 cases were identified (i.e., received BZD or non-BZD prescription). Main effect of patient and prescriber gender was significant F(1, 125 459) = 0.105, P = 0 .745, partial η2 < 0.001. Relative risk (RR) of male prescribers prescribing a BZD compared to female prescribers was 1.540, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.513, 1.567], whereas the RR of male patients being prescribed a BZD compared to female patients was 1.16, 95% CI [1.14, 1.18]. Main effects of patient and prescriber gender were statistically significant F(1, 125 459) = 188.232, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.001 and F(1, 125 459) = 349.704, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.013, respectively.
Male prescribers are more likely to prescribe BZDs, and male patients are more likely to receive BZDs. Further studies are required to characterize factors that influence this gender-by-gender interaction.
Identify risk factors that could increase progression to severe disease and mortality in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients in the Southeast region of the United States.
Design, setting, and participants:
Multicenter, retrospective cohort including 502 adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 8, 2020 within 1 of 15 participating hospitals in 5 health systems across 5 states in the Southeast United States.
The study objectives were to identify risk factors that could increase progression to hospital mortality and severe disease (defined as a composite of intensive care unit admission or requirement of mechanical ventilation) in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients in the Southeast United States.
In total, 502 patients were included, and 476 of 502 (95%) had clinically evaluable outcomes. The hospital mortality rate was 16% (76 of 476); 35% (177 of 502) required ICU admission and 18% (91 of 502) required mechanical ventilation. By both univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses, hospital mortality was independently associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.03 for each decade increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-–2.69), male sex (aOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.34–4.59), and cardiovascular disease (aOR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.15–4.09). As with mortality, risk of severe disease was independently associated with age (aOR, 1.17 for each decade increase; 95% CI, 1.00–1.37), male sex (aOR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.54–3.60), and cardiovascular disease (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.09–2.85).
In an adjusted multivariate analysis, advanced age, male sex, and cardiovascular disease increased risk of severe disease and mortality in patients with COVID-19 in the Southeast United States. In-hospital mortality risk doubled with each subsequent decade of life.
The recently discovered massive and stockwork sulphide mineralization of Semblana-Rosa Magra and Monte Branco, situated ESE of the Neves–Corvo volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is presented. Geological setting and tectonic model is discussed based on proxies such as palynostratigraphy and U–Pb zircon geochronology. The mineralization is found within the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex (VSC) Lower sequence, which includes felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolites) with U–Pb ages in zircons of 359.6 ± 1.6 Ma, and black shales of the Neves Formation of late Strunian age. Massive sulphides are enveloped by these shales, implying that felsic volcanism, mineralization and shale sedimentation are essentially coeval. This circumstance is considered highly prospective, as it represents an important exploration vector to target VMS mineralization across the IPB, in areas where the Lower VSC sequence is present. The Upper VSC sequence, with siliciclastic and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks of middle–late Visean age, shows no massive mineralization but a late Tournaisian (350.9 ± 2.3 Ma) volcanism with disseminated sulphides was also identified. Nevertheless, stratigraphic palynological gaps were found within the Strunian and in the Tournaisian sediments, between the Lower and Upper VSC sequences, reflecting probable erosion and uplift mechanisms linked with extensional tectonics. The Semblana and Monte Branco deposits and the Rosa Magra stockwork are enclosed by tectonic sheets that dismembered the VSC sequence in a fold-and-thrust tectonic complex, characteristic of the NE Neves–Corvo region. The methodologies used allow a geological comparison between Neves–Corvo and other IPB mine regions such as Lousal–Caveira, Herrerias, Tharsis and Aznalcollar.