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Opposition to sexual minority rights in Poland is among the highest in the EU. Populist political actors in the country repeatedly scapegoat gays and lesbians, presenting them as a threat to the Polish nation and its shared norms and values, particularly those derived from religion. Building upon previous research which shows how discourse constructing homosexuality as a threat to the nation has been used by social and political actors to legitimize homophobic rhetoric and behaviour, our paper shows whether nationalism—understood here as national collective narcissism—predicts prejudice towards gays and lesbians at the level of individual beliefs.
The extent to which obsessive–compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) are impulsive, compulsive, or both requires further investigation. We investigated the existence of different clusters in an online nonclinical sample and in which groups DSM-5 OCRDs and other related psychopathological symptoms are best placed.
Seven hundred and seventy-four adult participants completed online questionnaires including the Cambridge–Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), and a series of DSM-5 OCRDs symptom severity and other psychopathological measures. We used K-means cluster analysis using CHI-T and BIS responses to test three and four factor solutions. Next, we investigated whether different OCRDs symptoms predicted cluster membership using a multinomial regression model.
The best solution identified one “healthy” and three “clinical” clusters (ie, one predominantly “compulsive” group, one predominantly “impulsive” group, and one “mixed”—“compulsive and impulsive group”). A multinomial regression model found obsessive–compulsive, body dysmorphic, and schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” and the “compulsive” clusters, and hoarding and emotional symptoms to be related, on a trend level, to the “impulsive” cluster. Additional analysis showed cognitive-perceptual schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” but not the “compulsive” group.
Our findings suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder; body dysmorphic disorder and schizotypal symptoms can be mapped across the “compulsive” and “mixed” clusters of the compulsive–impulsive spectrum. Although there was a trend toward hoarding being associated with the “impulsive” group, trichotillomania, and skin picking disorder symptoms did not clearly fit to the demarcated clusters.
To evaluate the impact of changes in import tariffs on sweetened beverages.
Interrupted time series analysis was used to examine sweetened beverage tariff increases of 40–60 % in 2008 and to 75 % in 2012, and an approximately 11 % decrease in 2014 when an excise tax replaced the tariff. Post-tax trends were compared with a counterfactual modelled on the pre-tax trend for: quarterly price of an indicator beverage, monthly beverage import volumes (both 2001–2017) and quarterly sales volumes (2012–2017). In a controlled analysis, taxed beverage imports were compared with a sugary snacks control.
In the first year, after the 2008 tariff increase the price of the selected indicator soft drink increased by 7·3 % (95 % CI 6·3 %, 8·3 %) but after the 2012 tariff increase it decreased by 13·9 % (95 % CI –14·9 %, –12·8 %). At the same time, the import volumes of taxed beverages decreased by 13·2 % (95 % CI –38·1 %, 17·8 %) and 2·9 % (95 % CI –41·6 %, 72·5 %), respectively, and decreased by 24·8 % (95 % CI –36·9, –9·8) and 10·2 % (95 % CI –37·1, 37·5) in the controlled analysis. After the 2014 tax decrease, the price of the indicator soft drink decreased by 23·6 % (95 % CI –26·0 %, –21·1 %), sweetened beverage imports increased by 4·5 % (95 % CI –39·5 %, 156·0 %) and sales of full-sugar soft drinks increased by 31 % (95 % CI –21 %, 243 %).
The increased import tariffs on sweetened beverages appeared to be effective for reducing import volumes, but this was partly reversed by the reduced tax/tariff in 2014.
An intermediate-depth (1751 m) ice core was drilled at the South Pole between 2014 and 2016 using the newly designed US Intermediate Depth Drill. The South Pole ice core is the highest-resolution interior East Antarctic ice core record that extends into the glacial period. The methods used at the South Pole to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility (NSF-ICF), and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NSF-ICF are described. The South Pole ice core exhibited minimal brittle ice, which was likely due to site characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to drill technology and core handling procedures.
Standard surgical treatment of the interrupted aortic arch with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass is risky especially in critically ill babies. In this manuscript, we present the results of off-pump pericardial roll bypass for the treatment of aortic interruption.
Material and methods:
The technique was applied in nine critically ill infants between July 2011 and December 2019. Data were reviewed retrospectively. There were four girls and five boys. The types of the interruption were type B in six cases and type A in three babies. Additional cardiovascular anomalies were ventricular septal defect in all, atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale in all, single-ventricle pathologies in two and bicuspid aortic valve in three cases. All the patients were in critical situations such as intubated, having symptoms of infection, congestive heart failure or ischaemia and malperfusion leading visceral organ dysfunction.
All patients underwent off-pump ascending aorta or aortic arch to descending aorta bypass with a pericardial roll. Post-operative early mortality occurred in one patient with severe mitral regurgitation due to cardio-septic shock. One patient who had single-ventricle pathology underwent bidirectional Glenn and was lost on the post-operative 26th day due to sepsis 2 years after operation. Two patients presented with dilatation of the pericardial tube 18 and 24 months after the operations and one underwent reconstruction of the neo-arch. The remaining patients are asymptomatic, active and within normal limits of body and mental growth.
Treatment of interrupted aortic arch with a bypass with an autologous pericardial roll treated with gluteraldehyde without cardiopulmonary bypass seems a safe and reliable technique especially for the treatment of critically ill infants.
The association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms is still not clearly understood. Findings for positive and negative symptoms are confounding. This symptomatic response may differ according to the type of childhood trauma, for example childhood abuse was associated with positive symptoms while childhood neglect was associated with negative symptoms.
This study examined the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as clinical features, depression, and sleep quality.
The childhood trauma questionnaire – short form, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and the suicidality subscale of mini-international neuropsychiatric interview were administered to 199 patients with schizophrenia. We used sequential multiple stepwise regression analyses in which positive symptoms, negative symptoms, overall psychopathology and total symptoms of schizophrenia were dependent variables.
Depressive symptomatology and childhood physical abuse (CPA) significantly contributed to positive, negative, general psychopathology and global schizophrenia symptomatology. Stepwise regression analysis results are presented in Table 1.
Our findings suggest that CPA during childhood could have an impact on psychopathology in schizophrenia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A 10-month-old girl underwent patent ductus arteriosus closure with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. After 1 week, she was admitted to our emergency room with tachypnoea, fatigue, and fever. Consecutive blood cultures yielded vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was already receiving vancomycin, but the fever did not respond to this treatment. The device was successfully removed via left lateral thoracotomy.
To (1) confirm whether the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale is able to generate a 3-factor solution in a population of obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients; (2) compare these clinical groups in their habit, reward, and fear motivations; and (3) investigate whether homogenous subgroups can be identified to resolve heterogeneity within and across disorders based on the motivations driving ritualistic and drinking behaviors.
One hundred and thirty-four obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 76) or AUD (n = 58) patients were assessed with a battery of scales including the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System Scale, and the Urgency, (lack of
) Premeditation, (lack of
) Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency Impulsive Behavior Scale.
A 3-factor solution reflecting habit, reward, and fear subscores explained 56.6% of the total variance of the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale. Although the habit and fear subscores were significantly higher in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the reward subscores were significantly greater in AUD patients, a cluster analysis identified that the 3 clusters were each characterized by differing proportions of OCD and AUD patients.
While affective (reward- and fear-driven) and nonaffective (habitual) motivations for repetitive behaviors seem dissociable from each other, it is possible to identify subgroups in a transdiagnostic manner based on motivations that do not match perfectly motivations that usually described in OCD and AUD patients.
Treatment of the aneurysms comprising the aortic arch is challenging. Surgical reconstruction usually requires aortic cross-clamping, cardiac arrest, and even deep hypothermia for a bloodless field. In this report, we present our surgical technique providing normothermic ascending aorta, aortic arch, and proximal descending aorta replacement with selective cannulation and perfusion of the whole body.
Earthquakes, landslides, and floods are the most frequent natural disasters in Turkey. The country has also recently experienced an increased number of terrorist attacks. The purpose of this study is to understand the expectations and training of Turkish emergency medicine attending physicians in disaster medicine.
An online questionnaire was administered to the 937 members of the Emergency Medicine Association of Turkey, of which 191 completed the survey (20%).
Most participants (68%) worked at a Training and Research Hospital (TRH) or a University Hospital (UH), and 69% had practiced as an attending for 5 years or less. Mass immigration, refugee problems, and war/terror attacks were considered to be the highest perceived risk topics. Most (95%) agreed that disaster medicine trainings should occur during residency training. Regular disaster drills and exercises and weekly or monthly trainings were the most preferred educational modalities. Most respondents (85%) were interested in advanced training in disaster medicine, and this was highest for those working less than 5 years as an attending. UH and TRH residency training programs were not considered in themselves to be sufficient for learning disaster medicine.
Turkish emergency medicine residency training should include more disaster medicine education and training.
To investigate the feasibility of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) screening test by pulse oximetry in four geographical regions of Turkey with different altitudes, before implementation of a nationwide screening program.
It was a prospective multi-centre study performed in four centres, between December, 2015 and May, 2017. Pre- and post-ductal oxygen saturations and perfusion indices (PI) were measured using Masimo Radical-7 at early postnatal days. The results were evaluated according to the algorithm recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additionally, a PI value <0.7 was accepted to be significant.
In 4888 newborns, the mean screening time was 31.5 ± 12.1 hours. At first attempt, the mean values of pre- and post-ductal measurements were: saturation 97.3 ± 1.8%, PI 2.8 ± 2.0, versus saturation 97.7 ± 1.8%, PI 2.3±1.3, respectively. Pre-ductal saturations and PI and post-ductal saturations were the lowest in Centre 4 with the highest altitude. Overall test positivity rate was 0.85% (n = 42). CCHD was detected in six babies (0.12%). Of them, right hand (91 ± 6.3) and foot saturations (92.1 ± 4.3%) were lower compared to ones with non-CCHD and normal variants (p <0.05, for all comparisons). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio of the test were: 83.3%, 99.9%, 11.9%, 99.9%, and 99.2%, respectively.
This study concluded that pulse oximetry screening is an effective screening tool for congenital heart disease in newborns at different altitudes. We support the implementation of a national screening program with consideration of altitude differences for our country.
We assessed self-reported drives for alcohol use and their impact on clinical features of alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. Our prediction was that, in contrast to “affectively” (reward or fear) driven drinking, “habitual” drinking would be associated with worse clinical features in relation to alcohol use and higher occurrence of associated psychiatric symptoms.
Fifty-eight Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol abuse patients were assessed with a comprehensive battery of reward- and fear-based behavioral tendencies. An 18-item self-report instrument (the Habit, Reward and Fear Scale; HRFS) was employed to quantify affective (fear or reward) and non-affective (habitual) motivations for alcohol use. To characterize clinical and demographic measures associated with habit, reward, and fear, we conducted a partial least squares analysis.
Habitual alcohol use was significantly associated with the severity of alcohol dependence reflected across a range of domains and with lower number of detoxifications across multiple settings. In contrast, reward-driven alcohol use was associated with a single domain of alcohol dependence, reward-related behavioral tendencies, and lower number of detoxifications.
These results seem to be consistent with a shift from goal-directed to habit-driven alcohol use with severity and progression of addiction, complementing preclinical work and informing biological models of addiction. Both reward-related and habit-driven alcohol use were associated with lower number of detoxifications, perhaps stemming from more benign course for the reward-related and lack of treatment engagement for the habit-related alcohol abuse group. Future work should further explore the role of habit in this and other addictive disorders, and in obsessive-compulsive related disorders.
Premature ventricular contractions are accepted as benign in structurally normal hearts. However, reversible cardiomyopathy can sometimes develop. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-arrhythmic properties in animals and humans.
We evaluated left ventricular function in children with premature ventricular contractions with normal cardiac anatomy and assessed the impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on left ventricular function in a prospective trial.
A total of 25 patients with premature ventricular contraction, with more than 2% premature ventricular contractions on 24-hour Holter electrocardiography, and 30 healthy patients were included into study. All patients underwent electrocardiography, left ventricular M-mode echocardiography, and myocardial performance index testing. Patients with premature ventricular contraction were given omega-3 fatty acids at a dose of 1 g/day for 3 months, and control echocardiography and 24-hour Holter electrocardiography were performed. Neither placebo nor omega-3 fatty acids were given to the control group.
Compared with the values of the control group, the patients with premature ventricular contraction had significantly lower fractional shortening. The myocardial performance index decreased markedly in the patient groups. The mean heart rate and mean premature ventricular contraction percentage of Group 2 significantly decreased in comparison with their baseline values after the omega-3 supplementation.
In conclusion, premature ventricular contractions can lead to systolic cardiac dysfunction in children. Omega-3 supplementation may improve cardiac function in children with premature ventricular contractions. This is the first study conducted in children to investigate the possible role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on treatment of premature ventricular contractions.
Lithium and quetiapine are considered standard maintenance agents for bipolar disorder yet it is unclear how their efficacy compares with each other.
To investigate the differential effect of lithium and quetiapine on symptoms of depression, mania, general functioning, global illness severity and quality of life in patients with recently stabilised first-episode mania.
Maintenance trial of patients with first-episode mania stabilised on a combination of lithium and quetiapine, subsequently randomised to lithium or quetiapine monotherapy (up to 800 mg/day) and followed up for 1 year. (Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry – ACTRN12607000639426.)
In total, 61 individuals were randomised. Within mixed-model repeated measures analyses, significant omnibus treatment × visit interactions were observed for measures of overall psychopathology, psychotic symptoms and functioning. Planned and post hoc comparisons further demonstrated the superiority of lithium treatment over quetiapine.
In people with first-episode mania treated with a combination of lithium and quetiapine, continuation treatment with lithium rather than quetiapine is superior in terms of mean levels of symptoms during a 1-year evolution.
We aimed to determine whether individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and demographically matched healthy individuals can be clustered into distinct clinical subtypes based on dimensional measures of their self-reported compulsivity (OBQ–44 and IUS–12) and impulsivity (UPPS–P).
Participants (n=217) were 103 patients with a clinical diagnosis of OCD; 79 individuals from the community who were “OCD-likely” according to self-report (Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory–Revised scores equal or greater than 21); and 35 healthy controls. All data were collected between 2013 and 2015 using self-report measures that assessed different aspects of compulsivity and impulsivity. Principal component analysis revealed two components broadly representing an individual's level of compulsivity and impulsivity. Unsupervised clustering grouped participants into four subgroups, each representing one part of an orthogonal compulsive-impulsive phenotype.
Clustering converged to yield four subgroups: one group low on both compulsivity and impulsivity, comprised mostly of healthy controls and demonstrating the lowest OCD symptom severity; two groups showing roughly equal clinical severity, but with opposing drivers (i.e., high compulsivity and low impulsivity, and vice versa); and a final group high on both compulsivity and impulsivity and recording the highest clinical severity. Notably, the largest cluster of individuals with OCD was characterized by high impulsivity and low compulsivity. Our results suggest that both impulsivity and compulsivity mediate obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.
Individuals with OCD can be clustered into distinct subtypes based on measures of compulsivity and impulsivity, with the latter being found to be one of the more defining characteristics of the disorder. These dimensions may serve as viable and novel treatment targets.
To determine the rates and associated illness characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who describe their symptoms as either rewarding or habitual.
Seventy-three treatment-seeking OCD patients had their dominant compulsive behavior assessed with a structured interview (the Temporal Impulsive-Compulsive Scale–Revised) to track the progression of rewarding (ie, gain in positive affect), aversive (ie, decrease in negative affect), and neutral (or non-affective) states and a self-report scale (the Self-Report Habit Index) to evaluate their habitual features. Additional measures included structured diagnostic interviews for axis I and II disorders, measures of OCD symptoms severity, and a battery of instruments to comprehensively assess relevant aspects of sensitivity to reward and fear.
Almost half (49%) of our OCD patients (particularly washers) endorsed that they anticipated obtaining a reward (ie, positive affect) from the enactment of their dominant compulsive behavior. Washers stood out in that their positive affects during and after compulsive behaviors were highly (and positively) correlated with duration of illness. In contrast, habit strength did not differ between washers, checkers, and arrangers, although it also correlated with duration of illness among checkers. Furthermore, the severity of OCD and comorbidity with impulse control disorders predicted up to 35% of the variance in the habit strength of OCD behaviors.
Compulsive washing may be more clearly characterized by problems in reward processing. In contrast, duration of checking, severity of OCD, and comorbidity with impulse control disorders shape compulsive behaviors by imparting them with habitual tendencies.
The aetiological boundary between obsessive–compulsive related disorders
(OCRDs) including obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety
disorders is unclear and continues to generate debate.
To determine the genetic overlap and the pattern of causal relationships
among OCRDs and anxiety disorders.
Multivariate twin modelling methods and a new regression analysis to
infer causation were used, involving 2495 male and female twins.
The amount of common genetic liability observed for OCD symptoms was
higher when considering anxiety disorders and OCRDs in the model
v. modelling OCRD symptoms alone. OCD symptoms
emerged as risk factors for the presence of generalised anxiety, panic
and hoarding symptoms, whereas social phobia appeared as a risk factor
for OCD symptoms.
OCD represents a complex phenotype that includes important shared
features with anxiety disorders and OCRDs. The novel patterns of risk
identified between OCD and anxiety disorder may help to explain their