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There are fewer Certified Organic producers in the Mid-South US (southern half of Missouri, western Kentucky and Tennessee, northern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma) than in other regions of the country such as the Upper Midwest, West Coast, or Northeastern US. Taus et al. (2013) The Professional Geographer 65, 87–102, posit that these clusters suggest regional characteristics impact adoption of organic agriculture and admit that regional studies lack consensus on the role of factors that drive adoption. This paper seeks to understand if there are regionally distinct challenges and opportunities for organic production in the region. Fourteen certified organic producers in Missouri were interviewed and areas of challenges and opportunities specific to their certification were identified within the three a priori themes of (1) biophysical characteristics, (2) marketing infrastructure and (3) financial feasibility. We suggest directions for future policy support from the National Organic Program (NOP) and bolstered feedback structures within the National Organic Standards Board to address regional disparities.
Although there is growing evidence suggesting that eating patterns are important determinants of health status, comprehensive information on patterning of eating behaviours is almost lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe eating patterns in Japan.
Information on actual eating behaviours was collected using 2-d dietary record in each season over a year (total 8 d). Eating occasions were defined as any discrete intake occasion (with a discrete start clock time and name) except for eating occasions consisting of water only, which were excluded.
A nationwide sample of 4032 Japanese aged 1–79 years.
The mean value of eating frequency of meals (i.e. breakfast, lunch and dinner), snacks and total eating occasions was 2·94, 1·74 and 4·68 times/d, respectively. The mean clock time for the start of breakfast, lunch and dinner was 07.24, 12.29 and 19.15 h, respectively. The mean time spent consuming breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks was 19, 25, 34 and 27 min/d, respectively. On average, variability (i.e. average of absolute difference from mean) of meal frequency was small compared with that of snack frequency and total eating frequency. Both mean variability of clock time for the start of eating (<1 h) and mean variability of time spent on meals (<10 min/d) were also small. Conversely, mean variability of time spent on snacks was large (>18 min/d).
The present findings serve as both a reference and an indication for future research on patterning of eating behaviours.
Microtube implosions are a novel scheme to generate ultrahigh magnetic fields of the megatesla order. These implosions are driven by ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses. Using two- and three-dimensional particle simulations where megatesla-order magnetic fields can be achieved, we demonstrate scaling and criteria in terms of laser parameters, such as laser intensity and laser energy, to facilitate practical experiments toward the realization of extreme physical conditions, which have yet to be realized in laboratories. Microtube implosions should provide a new platform for studies in fundamental and applied physics relevant to ultrahigh magnetic fields.
FFQ, the primary method of dietary assessment in large-scale nutritional epidemiological studies, preclude an informed evaluation of the timing of dietary intake and meal-specific dietary intake. In this study, we developed the Meal-based Diet History Questionnaire (MDHQ), a self-administered questionnaire designed for estimating food and nutrient intakes for each meal type separately. The development was done based on a 16-d dietary record obtained from 242 Japanese adults. The MDHQ consisted of the three different parts, with a total of 196 items. Part 1 of the MDHQ asks about consumption frequency of generic food groups (n 24) for each meal type: breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner and night snack. Part 2 of the MDHQ asks about relative consumption frequency of sub-food groups within one of the generic food groups which are asked in Part 1. Combining information derived from Parts 1 and 2 enables us to increase the number of foods we can estimate efficiently but within a limited number of questions. Part 3 of the MDHQ asks about general eating behaviours, which are intended to use in a variety of ways during dietary intake calculation. A series of calculation algorithms for food groups, energy and nutrients was also prepared. Given that the MDHQ was empirically developed based on comprehensive information on actual food consumption, this innovative tool may be promising for future epidemiological research on meal patterns and time of day of dietary intake, or chrono-nutrition research. A rigorous evaluation of validity of the MDHQ is warranted.
To characterise different meal types by examining the contribution of specific meals to the total intakes and the nutritional quality of each meal.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted based on dietary data collected using 4-d dietary record. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3.
Adults aged 20–81 years (n 639).
Diet quality was, on average, highest for dinner, followed, in order, by lunch, breakfast and snacks. Breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, on average, accounted for 21 %, 32 %, 40 % and 11 % of total energy intake, respectively. For many nutrients, the percentage contribution to total intake did not vary within each meal, broadly in line with that for energy: 18–24 % for breakfast, 26–35 % for lunch, 35–49 % for dinner and 4–15 % for snacks. However, intakes of many foods largely depended on one meal type. The foods mainly eaten at dinner were potatoes, pulses, total vegetables, fish, meat and alcoholic beverages (52–70 %), in contrast to noodles (58 %) at lunch and bread (71 %) and dairy products (50 %) at breakfast. The foods mainly eaten at snacks were confectioneries (79 %) and sugar-sweetened beverages (52 %). Conversely, rice and eggs were more evenly distributed across three main meals (19–41 % and 30–38 %, respectively), while fruit and non-energetic beverages were more evenly distributed across all meal types (17–30 % and 19–35 %, respectively).
These findings provide the background information on each meal type in Japanese and may help inform the development of meal-based guidelines and public health messages.
Epidemiological evidence on the association between eating frequency and overall diet quality does not represent a consistent picture. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of meal frequency and snack frequency with diet quality, using different definitions of meals and snacks. Based on 4-d weighed dietary record data obtained from 639 Japanese adults aged 20–81 years, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on either the participant-identified or time-of-day definitions. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). One additional meal per d increased the HEI-2015 total score by 3·6 and 1·3 points based on the participant-identified and time-of-day definitions, respectively. A higher meal frequency was also associated with higher values of some of the HEI-2015 component scores (total vegetables, greens and beans, and total protein foods), irrespective of how meals were defined. Additionally, one additional participant-identified snack per d increased the HEI-2015 total score by 0·7 points. The frequency of participant-identified snacks also showed positive associations with some of the HEI-2015 component scores (total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, greens and beans, dairy products, and Na). However, the frequency of time-of-day defined snacks was not associated with the total scores of HEI-2015, although there were some associations for its components. Similar findings were obtained when the NRF9.3 was used. In conclusion, higher meal frequency was consistently associated with higher diet quality, while associations between snack frequency and diet quality varied depending on the definition of snacks.
There are few detailed studies about peripheral branch resection of the posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate; thus, this study aimed to investigate this.
Patients who underwent submucosal turbinoplasty with or without resection of the peripheral branches of posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate were included.
The resection of the posterior nasal nerves with turbinoplasty significantly reduced detection and recognition thresholds on olfactory testing. The rhinorrhoea severity, detection threshold and recognition threshold were significantly lower after resection of the posterior nasal nerves with turbinoplasty than after turbinoplasty alone, although there were no significant differences between the two groups before surgery.
This is the first study to show that the resection of the peripheral branches of the posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate with turbinoplasty more effectively inhibits allergic symptoms compared with turbinoplasty alone. It also showed that the resection of the peripheral branches of the posterior nasal nerves can inhibit olfactory dysfunction.
Data on the combination of foods consumed simultaneously at specific eating occasions are scarce, primarily due to a lack of assessment tools. We applied a recently developed meal coding system to multiple-day dietary intake data for assessing its ability to estimate food and nutrient intakes and characterise meal-based dietary patterns in the Japanese context. A total of 242 Japanese adults completed sixteen non-consecutive-day weighed dietary records, including 14 734 eating occasions (3788 breakfasts, 3823 lunches, 3856 dinners and 3267 snacks). Common food group combinations were identified by meal type to identify a range of generic meals. Dietary intake was calculated on the basis of not only the standard food composition database but also the substituted generic meal database. In total, eighty generic meals (twenty-three breakfasts, twenty-one lunches, twenty-four dinners and twelve snacks) were identified. The Spearman correlation coefficients between food group intakes calculated based on the standard food composition database and the substituted generic meal database ranged from 0·26 to 0·85 (median 0·69). The corresponding correlations for nutrient intakes ranged from 0·17 to 0·82 (median 0·61). A total of eleven meal patterns were established using principal components analysis, and these accounted for 39·1 % of total meal variance. Considerable variation in patterns was seen in meal type inclusion and choice of staple foods (bread, rice and noodles) and drinks, and also in meal constituents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the usefulness of a meal coding system for assessing habitual diet, providing a scientific basis towards the development of simple meal-based dietary assessment tools.
Although organised haematoma often induces bone thinning and destruction similar to malignant diseases, the aetiology of organised haematoma and the optimal treatment remain unclear. This paper presents the clinical features of individuals with organised haematoma, and describes cases in which a novel modified approach was successfully applied for resection of organised haematoma in the maxillary sinus.
Pre-operative examination data were evaluated retrospectively. Modified transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy was employed.
Fourteen patients with organised haematoma were treated. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed heterogeneous enhancement in all patients. Eight patients underwent modified transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy, without complications such as facial numbness, tooth numbness, facial tingling, lacrimation and eye discharge. Dissection of the apertura piriformis and anterior maxillary wall was not necessary for any of these eight patients. No recurrence was observed.
Pre-operative examinations can be helpful in determining the likelihood of organised haematoma. Modified transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy appears to be a safe and effective method for organised haematoma resection.
Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women. Monetary diet cost was estimated using retail food prices. Total vegetables, fish and shellfish, green and black tea, white rice, meat, fruit and alcoholic beverages contributed most (79–89 %) to inter-individual variation in monetary diet cost. Multiple regression analyses showed that monetary diet cost was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake, but positively with intakes of all other nutrients examined (including not only dietary fibre and key vitamins and minerals but also saturated fat and Na) in all generations. For food group intakes, irrespective of age, monetary diet cost was associated inversely with white rice and bread but positively with pulses, potatoes, fruit, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, green and black tea, fish and shellfish, and meat. In conclusion, in all three generations of Japanese women and contrary to Western populations, monetary diet cost was positively associated with not only healthy dietary components (including fruits, vegetables, fish and shellfish, dietary fibre, and key vitamins and minerals), but also less healthy components (including saturated fat and Na).
The origins of the large Classic and Postclassic urban centres of Central Mexico remain poorly understood. Archaeological investigations at the Formative site of Tlalancaleca in Puebla (Mexico) provide the first detailed study of a large-scale urban centre of that period. Preliminary results suggest that the growth and development of this particular site may have influenced the subsequent growth of Teotihuacan itself. This study explores how urbanisation can be identified archaeologically by tracing the expansion of population and the emergence of monumental architecture.
The associations of dietary energy density with dietary intake and obesity have been largely unexplored in non-Western populations. The present cross-sectional study examined the associations using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a 1-d semi-weighed dietary record in 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Mean dietary energy density (calculated on the basis of foods only) was 5·98 (sd 1·20) kJ/g in men and 5·72 (sd 1·16) kJ/g in women. Dietary energy density was positively associated with intakes of bread, noodles (only men), meat, fats and oils, and sugar and confectionery but inversely with intakes of white rice (only men), potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish. For nutrient intake, dietary energy density was positively associated with total fat and SFA but inversely associated with all other nutrients examined such as protein, carbohydrate, alcohol (only women), dietary fibre, and several vitamins and minerals, including Na. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary energy density was positively associated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) in women (adjusted prevalence ratio between the extreme tertiles 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·12; Pfor trend=0·003). Dietary energy density was also positively but non-significantly associated with general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) in women (Pfor trend=0·08). There were no such associations in men. In conclusion, lower energy density of the diets of Japanese adults was associated with favourable food and nutrient intake patterns, except for higher Na, and, in only women, a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity.
This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) of meals and snacks are associated with overall diet quality and adiposity measures in 1617 British children aged 4–18 years from the 1997 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. On the basis of data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of time (meals: 06.00–09.00, 12.00–14.00 and 17.00–20.00 hours; snacks: all others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15 %; snacks: <15 %). ED of meals and snacks was calculated on the basis of food only. Overall diet quality was assessed using the Mediterranean diet score (range 0–8). Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, ≥67 % of EI was derived from meals, whereas ED of meals was lower than ED of snacks (mean: 8·50–8·75 v. 9·69–10·52 kJ/g). Both ED of meals and ED of snacks were inversely associated with total intakes of vegetables, fruits, dietary fibre and overall diet quality and positively associated with total intakes of fat. However, the associations were stronger for ED of meals. The change in the Mediterranean diet score with a 1-unit increase of ED (kJ/g) was −0·35 to −0·30 for ED of meals and −0·09 to −0·06 for ED of snacks (all P<0·0001). After adjustment for potential confounders, all measures of ED of meals and snacks did not show positive associations with adiposity measures. In conclusion, although both ED of meals and ED of snacks were associated with adverse profiles of overall diet quality (but not adiposity measures), stronger associations were observed for ED of meals.
Western studies have suggested cultural differences in food and nutrient intake patterns associated with dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL). Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the GI and GL of Japanese diets in relation to food and nutrient intakes.
Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire.
A total of thirty-five of forty-seven prefectures in Japan.
Young (age 18 years), middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women (n 3961, 3800 and 2202, respectively).
Irrespective of age, a positive association with dietary GI was seen for white rice only, which contributed most (37–42 %) to the variation in dietary GI. Conversely, all other food groups (such as fruit and vegetable juice, dairy products, noodles and fruit) were negative predictors of dietary GI. For dietary GL, 95–96 % of variation was explained by carbohydrate-rich food groups, all of which were positive predictors of GL. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, only carbohydrate intake was positively associated with dietary GI and GL, irrespective of age. Conversely, dietary GI and GL were inversely associated with intakes of all other nutrients examined (including SFA and Na).
A low-GI and -GL diet, which was characterized principally by a low intake of white rice, was associated with both favourable (higher intakes of dietary fibre and key vitamins and minerals) and unfavourable (higher intakes of SFA and Na) aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of Japanese women.
Several previous studies have shown that a diet score based on the Japanese food guide Spinning Top (the original score) is associated with both favourable and unfavourable dietary intake patterns. We developed a food-based diet quality score (the modified score) and examined associations with nutrient intakes. Subjects were 3963 young (all aged 18 years), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 47·7 (sd 3·9) years) and 2211 older (mean age 74·4 (sd 5·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using comprehensive (for the young and middle-aged) and brief-type (for the older) diet history questionnaires. The original score was calculated based on intakes of grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, fruits, and snacks/alcoholic beverages. The modified score was similarly calculated, but included Na from seasonings and without applying the upper cut-off values for dietary components where increased consumption is advocated for Japanese women (grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, and fruits). The original score was positively associated with intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and all the vitamins and minerals examined including Na and inversely with intakes of fats and alcohol in young and middle-aged women. In older women, the original score was inversely associated with intakes of all nutrients except for carbohydrate and vitamin C. However, the modified score was associated positively with intakes of protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, vitamins A, C and E, and folate and inversely with intakes of fats, alcohol and Na in all generations. In conclusion, the modified diet score was positively associated with favourable nutrient intake patterns in Japanese women.
This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) in meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference (WC). On the basis of the data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06.00–10.00, 12.00–15.00 and 18.00–21.00 hours; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19–64 years. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, both meal ED and snack ED (kJ/g; calculated on the basis of solid food only) were inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β)=−0·29 to −0·21 and −0·07 to −0·04, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β=−0·43 to −0·30 and −0·13 to −0·06, respectively) in both sexes (P≤0·002), although the associations were stronger for meal ED. After adjustment for potential confounders, in both men and women, meal ED based on EI contribution showed positive associations with BMI (β=0·34; 95% CI 0·06, 0·62 and β=0·31; 95% CI 0·01, 0·61, respectively) and WC (β=0·96; 95% CI 0·27, 1·66 and β=0·67; 95% CI 0·04, 1·30, respectively). In addition, meal ED based on time was positively associated with WC in men (β=0·59; 95% CI 0·07, 1·10) and snack ED based on time was positively associated with BMI in women (β=0·15; 95% CI 0·04, 0·27). In analyses in which only acceptable EI reporters were included, similar results were obtained. In conclusion, the findings suggest stronger associations of meal ED with overall diet quality, BMI and WC compared with snack ED.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6–11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12–19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00–09.00, 12.00–14.00 and 17.00–20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.
To examine the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with diet quality.
Dietary intake was assessed using two 24 h dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00–09.00, 12.00–14.00 and 17.00–20.00 hours, or others). Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010.
Nationally representative sample of the US population.
Children aged 6–11 years (n 4269) and adolescents aged 12–19 years (n 6193) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2012.
Irrespective of the definition of meals, higher MF was associated with higher HEI-2010 in both children and adolescents. One additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 1·45–3·59 points (all P<0·005). Conversely, the associations for SF were inconsistent. While SF based on energy contribution was positively associated with HEI-2010 in both children and adolescents (0·70 (P=0·001) and 1·00 (P<0·0001) point increase by one additional snack, respectively), there were no associations for SF based on self-report or time. In analyses in which only plausible energy reporters (3425 children and 3753 adolescents) were included, similar results were obtained.
In a representative sample of US children and adolescents, MF was associated with better diet quality, while the associations for SF varied depending on the definition of snacks. The findings highlight the importance of applying different definitions of meals and snacks when assessing the impact of dietary patterns on health.