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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the shunted single-ventricle population is associated with poor outcomes. Interposed abdominal compression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or IAC-CPR, is an adjunct to standard CPR in which pressure is applied to the abdomen during the recoil phase of chest compressions.
A lumped parameter model that represents heart chambers and blood vessels as resistors and capacitors was used to simulate blood flow in both Blalock-Taussig-Thomas and Sano circulations. For standard CPR, a prescribed external pressure waveform was applied to the heart chambers and great vessels to simulate chest compressions. IAC-CPR was modelled by adding phasic compression pressure to the abdominal aorta. Differential equations for the model were solved by a Runge-Kutta method.
In the Blalock-Taussig-Thomas model, mean pulmonary blood flow during IAC-CPR was 30% higher than during standard CPR; cardiac output increased 21%, diastolic blood pressure 16%, systolic blood pressure 8%, coronary perfusion pressure 17%, and coronary blood flow 17%. In the Sano model, pulmonary blood flow during IAC-CPR increased 150%, whereas cardiac output was improved by 13%, diastolic blood pressure 18%, systolic blood pressure 8%, coronary perfusion pressure 15%, and coronary blood flow 14%.
In this model, IAC-CPR confers significant advantage over standard CPR with respect to pulmonary blood flow, cardiac output, blood pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, and coronary blood flow. These results support the notion that single-ventricle paediatric patients may benefit from adjunctive resuscitation techniques, and underscores the need for an in-vivo trial of IAC-CPR in children.
Among the solar proxies, κ1 Cet, stands out as potentially having a mass very close to solar and a young age. We report magnetic field measurements and planetary habitability consequences around this star, a proxy of the young Sun when life arose on Earth. Magnetic strength was determined from spectropolarimetric observations and we reconstruct the large-scale surface magnetic field to derive the magnetic environment, stellar winds, and particle flux permeating the interplanetary medium around κ1 Cet. Our results show a closer magnetosphere and mass-loss rate 50 times larger than the current solar wind mass-loss rate when Life arose on Earth, resulting in a larger interaction via space weather disturbances between the stellar wind and a hypothetical young-Earth analogue, potentially affecting the habitability. Interaction of the wind from the young Sun with the planetary ancient magnetic field may have affected the young Earth and its life conditions.
κ1 Cet (HD 20630, HIP 15457, d = 9.16 pc, V = 4.84) is a dwarf star approximately 30 light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Cetus. Among the solar proxies studied in the Sun in Time, κ1 Cet stands out as potentially having a mass very close to solar and a young age. On this study, we monitored the magnetic field and the chromospheric activity from the Ca II H & K lines of κ1 Cet. We used the technique of Least-Square-Deconvolution (LSD, Donati et al. 1997) by simultaneously extracting the information contained in all 8,000 photospheric lines of the echelogram (for a linelist matching an atmospheric model of spectral type K1). To reconstruct a reliable magnetic map and characterize the surface differential rotation of κ1 Cet we used 14 exposures spread over 2 months, in order to cover at least two rotational cycles (Prot ~9.2 days). The Least Square deconvolution (LSD) technique was applied to detect the Zeeman signature of the magnetic field in each of our 14 observations and to measure its longitudinal component. In order to reconstruct the magnetic field geometry of κ1 Cet, we applied the Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) inversion method. ZDI revealed a structure in the radial magnetic field consisting of a polar magnetic spot. On this study, we present the fisrt look results of a high-resolution spectropolarimetric campaign to characterize the activity and the magnetic fields of this young solar proxy.
The habitable zone is the range of orbital distances from a host star in which an exoplanet would have a surface temperature suitable for maintaining liquid water. This makes the orbital distance of exoplanets an important variable when searching for extra-solar Earth analogues. However, the orbital distance is not the only important factor determining whether an exoplanet is potentially suitable for life. The ability of an exoplanet to retain an atmosphere is also vital since it helps regulate surface temperatures. One mechanism by which a planetary atmosphere can be lost is erosion due to a strong stellar wind from the host star. The presence of a magnetosphere can help to shield a planetary atmosphere from this process. Using a simple stellar wind model, we present the impact that stellar winds might have on magnetospheric sizes of exoplanets. This is done with the aim of further constraining the parameter space in which we look for extra-solar Earth analogues.
In November 2009, we initiated a multistate investigation of Salmonella Montevideo infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern JIXX01.0011. We identified 272 cases in 44 states with illness onset dates ranging from 1 July 2009 to 14 April 2010. To help generate hypotheses, warehouse store membership card information was collected to identify products consumed by cases. These records identified 19 ill persons who purchased company A salami products before onset of illness. A case-control study was conducted. Ready-to-eat salami consumption was significantly associated with illness (matched odds ratio 8·5, 95% confidence interval 2·1–75·9). The outbreak strain was isolated from company A salami products from an environmental sample from one manufacturing plant, and sealed containers of black and red pepper at the facility. This outbreak illustrates the importance of using membership card information to assist in identifying suspect vehicles, the potential for spices to contaminate ready-to-eat products, and preventing raw ingredient contamination of these products.
The meeting was attended by 5 members of the WG (E. Bowell, G. Consolmagno, R. Courtain, R. Lopez, R. Schulz) one Task Group member (J. Watanabe), and several guests from the CSBN and CBAT. It was decided at the beginning of the meeting that the attending members of the WGPSN would discuss matters, provide their opinion or vote, and then ask the other 8 formal members to do the same via email. As a consequence the following discussed items have been agreed by majority vote of the WG members.
The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently conducted an extragalactic submillimetric survey of the Chandra Deep Field South region of unprecedented size, depth, and angular resolution in three wavebands centered at 250,
350, and 500 µm. BLAST wavelengths are chosen to study the Cosmic Infrared Background near its peak at 200 µm.
We find that most of the CIB at these wavelengths is contributed by galaxies detected at 24 µm by the MIPS instrument on Spitzer, and that the source counts distribution shows a population with strongly evolving density and luminosity. These results anticipate what can be expected from the surveys that will be conducted with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel space observatory.
Research conducted on biomass for Ulcos (“Ultra-
Low CO2 Steelmaking” European Integrated Project)
has progressively focused on charcoal supply from
tropical eucalyptus plantations. The sustainability of such
plantations is being investigated from the viewpoint of
their carbon, water and nutrient budgets: they must all
be neutral or positive. Field research is producing results
at the tree or stand level in several sites of Congo and
Brazil, while a spatial model is developed to identify
the conditions of biomass neutrality at the scale of the
forest ecosystem. The productivity of biomass has been
analyzed through the description of practices along the
Abstracts of technical articles
various supply-schemes that competitively feed the steel
industry in Brazil and the identification of bottlenecks for
The Working Group on Planetary System Nomenclature (WG-PSN) develops, maintains and publishes guidelines for naming natural satellites of planets and surface features on all solar system bodies except Earth. When required the WG approves lists of new nomenclature, with accompanying explanatory notes, based on the established guidelines. Approved names are immediately added into the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Objections based on significant, substantive problems may be submitted within a 3-months period, and will be ruled on by Division III.
A total of 701 comets received names between July 2005 and June 2008. Comets observed only from the SOHO and STEREO missions, as well as further comets recognized from the long-defunct SOLWIND satellite, accounted for 520 of these names.
Colin Bibby (1948–2004) was the quintessential bird conservation biologist. Over his career, he served as lead scientist at two of the world's largest bird conservation organizations, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and BirdLife International. His contributions encompassed detailed autecological studies of rare bird species such as the Dartford Warbler Sylvia undata (e.g. Bibby 1978) and Fuerteventura Stonechat Saxicola dacotiae (e.g. Bibby and Hill 1987), a sweeping synthesis of the techniques of bird conservation science (Bibby et al. 1992, 2000), and pioneering contributions in conservation planning such as the Endemic Bird Areas concept (ICBP 1992).
Bio-fuels are probably the most obvious and well known recent development, but whatever the industry the term co-products is now outdated as no factory will ever be constructed without recognition of the value contribution of all products. For example the new Cargill plant in Manchester, that uses wheat as the substrate, produces, starch plus its derivatives, vital wheat gluten, potable alcohol via a joint arrangement with an adjacent company Nedalco, wheatfeed, potentially a liquid feed for pigs and ruminants, plus a ruminant moist feed CœTraffordgold. They are all essential products to justify capital investment and profitable plant operation.
The meeting was attended by six from the WG (K. Aksnes, J. Blunck, G. Consolmagno, B. Marsden, R. Schulz, V. Shevchenko) and two from the Task Groups (D. Morrison, J. Watanabe). Also the incoming WG members E. Bowell and R. Courtin, as well as some guests, attended.
The purpose of this study is to analyse the transport and stirring of fluid that occurs owing to the formation and growth of a laminar vortex ring. Experimental data was collected upstream and downstream of the exit plane of a piston-cylinder apparatus by particle-image velocimetry. This data was used to compute Lagrangian coherent structures to demonstrate how fluid is advected during the transient process of vortex ring formation. Similar computations were performed from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data, which showed qualitative agreement with the experimental results, although the CFD data provides better resolution in the boundary layer of the cylinder. A parametric study is performed to demonstrate how varying the piston-stroke length-to-diameter ratio affects fluid entrainment during formation. Additionally, we study how regions of fluid are stirred together during vortex formation to help establish a quantitative understanding of the role of vortical flows in mixing. We show that identification of the flow geometry during vortex formation can aid in the determination of efficient stirring. We compare this framework with a traditional stirring metric and show that the framework presented in this paper is better suited for understanding stirring/mixing in transient flow problems. A movie is available with the online version of the paper.
If we are to appreciate Jonathan Edwards as a real person and not just as an intellectual or spiritual prodigy who appears out of nowhere in the American wilderness, we must try to get a sense of his contexts. Edwards lived in a time and place very different from our own, and so it takes some acts of imagination to get a good sense of him in his own times.
First, we must think of when Edwards lived. Born in 1703 and living until 1758, he came of age almost a full century after the first American Puritan settlements; but he died before there was an inkling of the American Revolution. Even most educated Americans today would be hard pressed to name anything that happened in colonial America between 1703 and 1758, except perhaps the awakening with which Edwards himself was associated and the outbreak of the French and Indian War during Edwards's last years. They might also recall that Benjamin Franklin, born in 1706, was a contemporary of Edwards and thus provides us with some secular glimpses of these largely unknown decades.
Our picture of Edwards's world is helped considerably if we think about Europe during his time. One of the most momentous developments was the intellectual revolution of the Enlightenment, which was growing throughout Edwards's lifetime. Edwards's early thought was shaped by the great English figures of the previous generation, Isaac Newton and John Locke, and he was a contemporary of the Scottish David Hume, whose work he knew well. Edwards's intellectual context was shaped by a host of British and European thinkers who were shepherding Christendom from an age of intense faiths and religious wars into what they hoped would be an age of reason, science, and common sense. Benjamin Franklin's secular outlook is a testimony to the appeal that these impressively formulated British and European Enlightenment views often had for young colonials.
As for comets 619 comets received names from July 2002 to June 2005. Of this naming 76 percent are SOHO comets and 11 percent include the name of the LINEAR project. A revision of the guidelines for naming comets has been completed in March 2003. The assistance of the director of CBAT, Daniel W. E. Green, in redrafting these guidelines was much appreciated by the committee.
Since the IAU General Assembly in Sydney in July 2003, the WGPSN has conducted its business through numerous e-mail exchanges between the members. A nomenclature workshop was held at Hardingasete, western Norway on September 1–3, 2005. That meeting was attended by eight members from the WG and two from the Task Groups (TG) for the small bodies and for the outer solar system. Input to the meeting had also been received by e-mail from other members.